2STUDENT TARGET I can understand the fundamentals of the market system. I can understand the definition of Economics.I can understand why people have to make choices and that with choosing comes consequences.I can understand that with every benefit there is always a cost.
3CONCEPTS Economics Scarcity Market Economy Opportunity Cost EntrepreneurshipCapitalCostRevenueProfitIncentivesSupply and DemandPriceBudgetUtilityBenefitInvestmentGrowthChoiceConsumerProducerWages
4NATIONAL STANDARDSStandard 1 : Scarcity Productive resources are limited. Therefore, people can not have all the goods and services they want; as a result, they must choose some things and give up others.Standard 2 : Marginal Cost/Benefit Effective decision making requires comparing the additional costs of alternatives with the additional benefits. Most choices involve doing a little more or a little less of something: few choices are "all or nothing" decisions.
5NATIONAL STANDARDSStandard 3 : Allocation of Goods and Services Different methods can be used to allocate goods and services. People acting individually or collectively through government, must choose which methods to use to allocate different kinds of goods and services.Standard 4 : Role of Incentives People respond predictably to positive and negative incentives
6WHICH ONE OF THESE TWO THINGS WOULD YOU RATHER BE DOING RIGHT NOW?
7COSTS AND BENEFITSA Cost is something you give up in making a choice and a Benefit is something you gain. What would be the costs and the benefits of doing this now?
8COSTS AND BENEFITSWhy have you chosen to do this instead? What are the costs and benefits?WHY MUST YOU CHOOSE?BECAUSE OF SCARCITY
9SCARCITYSCARCITY TELLS ME I CAN’T DO BOTH, I HAVE TO MAKE A CHOICE. SINCE YOU CAN’T HAVE EVERYTHING YOU WANT ECONOMICS HELPS US GET THE MOST OUT OF WHAT WE CAN HAVE.
10T.I.N.S.T.A.A.F.L. “There’s no such thing as a free lunch”? Have you ever heard the phrase:“There’s no such thing as a free lunch”?
11OPPORTUNITY COSTEVEN THOUGH THE SIGN SAYS SO, IS IT TRULY FREE? I MAY NOT GIVE UP MONEY, BUT WHAT AM I GIVING UP BY ATTENDING?
12IF I EAT LUNCH FROM 12:00 TO 1:00 P.M., WHAT CAN’T I DO?
13OPPORTUNITY COST IS THE BEST OPTION GIVEN UP WHEN YOU MAKE A CHOICE What is the Opportunity Cost of the following decisions?Buying a gift for a friend.Working at a job after schoolWaiting on line for an hour to buy a new cell phonePlaying on your X-Box for two hours after dinner.Did you all have the same answers? Why not?
14WHAT IS ECONOMICS?Economics is the study of how people make choices. When you make a good economic decision the benefits will be greater than the costs.
15UTILITY = SATISFACTION He made a good decisionHe made a bad decision
16WHY DO PEOPLE MAKE THE DECISION TO GO INTO BUSINESS FOR THEMSELVES?
17HAVE MORE CONTROL OVER MY WORK SCHEDULE TAKE OUT A PIECE OF PAPER AND DRAW A LINE VERTICALLY DOWN THE MIDDLE. LABEL ONE SIDE BENEFITS AND THE OTHER SIDE COSTS. WHAT WOULD BE THE BENEFITS OF OPENING YOUR OWN BUSINESS AND WHAT WOULD BE THE COSTS?PROFITBE YOUR OWN BOSSFREEDOMFILL A NEEDHAVE MORE CONTROL OVER MY WORK SCHEDULEPAID MORE FOR MY WORKGREAT CHANCE OF FAILURENO ONE TO SHARE THE COSTS WITHNO ONE TO SHARE RESPONSIBILITIES OR SKILLSDO THE JOB OF THE WORKER AND THE BOSSBENEFITSCOSTS
18PEOPLE RESPOND TO INCENTIVES INCENTIVES are things such as rewards that motivate a person to do something. Punishment is meant to be a disincentive.
19INCENTIVES HELP PEOPLE MAKE CHOICES THERE WAS A TIME WHEN THE MAJORITY OF ADULT AMERICANS SMOKED AND PEOPLE THOUGHT IT LOOKED COOL.
20CHANGING INCENTIVES CHANGE PEOPLE’S CHOICES NOW LESS THAN 25% OF THE U.S. POPULATION SMOKES AND THE NUMBERS HAVE BEEN SHRINKING FOR DECADES. WHAT CHANGED?WE GOT EDUCATED
21SO, TO RECAP!!! SCARCITY TELLS US WE CAN’T HAVE EVERYTHING WE WANT EVERY DAY OF OUR LIVES WE HAVE TO MAKE CHOICESIN MAKING CHOICES WE WEIGH THE BENEFITS AGAINST THE COSTSNOTHING IS FREE, THERE IS ALWAYS AN OPPORTUNITY COSTA GOOD ECONOMIC DECISION CREATES MORE BENEFITS THAN COSTSINCENTIVES HELP US TO CHOOSE
22THE MARKET ECONOMYTHE WORLD’S ECONOMIES PROVIDE US WITH A LOT OF CHOICES AND THE WORLD’S SHOPPERS HAVE A LOT OF DIFFERENT INTERESTS.
23THE MARKET ECONOMYIN AMERICA, WE HAVE A LOT OF FREEDOM TO DECIDE WHAT WE WANT TO DO WITH OUR LIVES AND HOW WE WANT TO SPEND OUR MONEY
24THE MARKET ECONOMY ALLOWS SELLERS TO COMPETE FOR CONSUMER DOLLARS SUPPLYDEMAND
25PRICE OF LABOR WHY DOES THIS GUY MAKE $30,000,000?
26THE ANSWER IS: SUPPLY AND DEMAND WE LOVE BASKETBALL, ESPECIALLY HIGH FLYING AND ACROBATIC DEFYERS OF GRAVITY ( HUGE DEMAND)THERE’S ONLY ONE LeBRON (TINY SUPPLY)WE LOVE FAST-FOOD THOUGH WE KNOW IT’S NOT GOOD FOR US (HUGE DEMAND)THERE ARE SEEMINGLY ENDLESS CHOICES FOR IT AND THE PROCESS OF MAKING IT DOESN’T REQUIRE MUCH THOUGHT. JUST ABOUT ANYONE CAN FILL THE JOB. ( EVEN BIGGER SUPPLY)
27DO YOU KNOW WHAT THIS IS?It’s the Motorola DynaTAC 8000X , the world’s first cell phone. It went on sale March 6, 1983 and the initial price was $ It had enough battery life for 30 minutes of talk and there was a waiting list of thousands anxious to buy it.
28Today we have cellular technology that allows for all kinds of communication, video streaming, and downloads with more computing power and memorythen the technology that sent all of our astronauts to the Moon. Many are given away with service contracts.HOW DID THAT HAPPEN?
29THE ANSWER IS: SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN 1983, ONE COMPANY MADE CELL PHONES WITH VERY EXPENSIVE PARTS AND A GREAT AMOUNT OF COSTLY LABOR (TINY SUPPLY)PEOPLE WERE CRAZY ABOUT IT AND WAITED FOR MONTHS BEFORE DELIVERY (BIG DEMAND)IN 2010, MANY COMPANIES MAKE A VARIETY OF PHONES WITH VERY INEXPENSIVE PARTS AND VERY LITTLE HUMAN LABOR INVOLVED (HUGE SUPPLY)MOST CONSUMERS HAVE A PHONE AND SPEND MOST OF THEIR MONEY ON SERVICES (DEMAND IS SLOWING DOWN)
30READ EACH STATEMENT BELOW AND DECIDE WHETHER THE PRICE OF THE ITEM WILL GO UP OR DOWN. ALSO, IS THIS BECAUSE OF A CHANGE IN SUPPLY OR DEMAND?A TICKET TO SEE YOUR FAVORITE FOOTBALL TEAM NOW THAT THEY’VE MADE THE PLAYOFFSA GALLON OF GASOLINE AFTER A HURRICANE SHUTS DOWN OIL DRILLING PLATFORMS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO.A BUSHEL OF CORN AFTER FARMERS IN IOWA DISCOVER A MORE POWERFUL FERTILIZER.A PAIR OF DESIGNER JEANS AFTER EVERYONE’S FAVORITE CELEBRITY IS SEEN WEARING THEM THE NIGHT BEFORE ON AN AWARDS SHOW.A BIG MAC AFTER RESEARCHERS DETERMINE THAT EATING TOO MUCH FAST FOOD CAUSES STUDENTS TO GET LOWER GRADES.
31SO, TO RECAP!!!IN ORDER FOR THE MARKET TO WORK IT MUST BE OPEN TO EVERYONEMARKETS ARE CREATED TO ALLOW BUYERS AND SELLERS TO PROFIT.SELLERS MAKE MONEY AND BUYERS GET THE ITEMS THEY’RE LOOKING FOR.THE PRICE HELPS BUYERS MAKE DECISIONS ON WHAT THEY WILL PURCHASE AND HELPS SELLERS DETERMINE WHAT THEY SHOULD PRODUCE.WAGES ARE DETERMINED BY THE SUPPLY AND DEMAND FOR THE JOB SKILLS OFFERED.
32IS THE MARKET POWERLESS TO DO ANYTHING ABOUT THE PRICE OF GASOLINE?