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**Using Inductive Reasoning to Make Conjectures 2-1**

Warm Up Lesson Presentation Lesson Quiz Holt Geometry

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**Complete each sentence.**

Are you ready? Complete each sentence. 1. ? points are points that lie on the same line. 2. ? points are points that lie in the same plane. 3. The sum of the measures of two ? angles is 90°.

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Objectives TSW use inductive reasoning to identify patterns and make conjectures. TSW find counterexamples to disprove conjectures.

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**Biologists use inductive reasoning to develop theories about migration**

patterns.

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Vocabulary inductive reasoning conjecture counterexample

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**Example 1: Identifying a Pattern**

Find the next item in the pattern. January, March, May, ...

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**Example 2: Identifying a Pattern**

Find the next item in the pattern. 7, 14, 21, 28, …

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**Example 3: Identifying a Pattern**

Find the next item in the pattern.

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Example 4 Find the next item in the pattern 0.4, 0.04, 0.004, …

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When several examples form a pattern and you assume the pattern will continue, you are applying inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning is the process of reasoning that a rule or statement is true because specific cases are true. You may use inductive reasoning to draw a conclusion from a pattern. A statement you believe to be true based on inductive reasoning is called a conjecture.

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**Example 5: Making a Conjecture**

Complete the conjecture. The sum of two positive numbers is ? .

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**Example 6: Making a Conjecture**

Complete the conjecture. The number of lines formed by 4 points, no three of which are collinear, is ? .

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Example 7 Complete the conjecture. The product of two odd numbers is ? .

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**Example 8: Biology Application**

The cloud of water leaving a whale’s blowhole when it exhales is called its blow. A biologist observed blue-whale blows of 25 ft, 29 ft, 27 ft, and 24 ft. Another biologist recorded humpback-whale blows of 8 ft, 7 ft, 8 ft, and 9 ft. Make a conjecture based on the data. Heights of Whale Blows Height of Blue-whale Blows 25 29 27 24 Height of Humpback-whale Blows 8 7 9

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Example 9 Make a conjecture about the lengths of male and female whales based on the data. Average Whale Lengths Length of Female (ft) 49 51 50 48 47 Length of Male (ft) 45 44 46

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**To show that a conjecture is always true, you must prove it.**

To show that a conjecture is false, you have to find only one example in which the conjecture is not true. This case is called a counterexample. A counterexample can be a drawing, a statement, or a number.

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Inductive Reasoning 1. Look for a pattern. 2. Make a conjecture. 3. Prove the conjecture or find a counterexample.

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**Example 10: Finding a Counterexample**

Show that the conjecture is false by finding a counterexample. For every integer n, n3 is positive.

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**Example 11: Finding a Counterexample**

Show that the conjecture is false by finding a counterexample. Two complementary angles are not congruent.

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**Monthly High Temperatures (ºF) in Abilene, Texas**

Example 12: Finding a Counterexample Show that the conjecture is false by finding a counterexample. The monthly high temperature in Abilene is never below 90°F for two months in a row. Monthly High Temperatures (ºF) in Abilene, Texas Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 88 89 97 99 107 109 110 106 103 92

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Example 13 Show that the conjecture is false by finding a counterexample. For any real number x, x2 ≥ x.

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Example 14 Show that the conjecture is false by finding a counterexample. Supplementary angles are adjacent.

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**Planets’ Diameters (km)**

Example 15 Show that the conjecture is false by finding a counterexample. The radius of every planet in the solar system is less than 50,000 km. Planets’ Diameters (km) Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto 4880 12,100 12,800 6790 143,000 121,000 51,100 49,500 2300

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Lesson Quiz Find the next item in each pattern. 1. 0.7, 0.07, 0.007, … 2. 0.0007 Determine if each conjecture is true. If false, give a counterexample. 3. The quotient of two negative numbers is a positive number. 4. Every prime number is odd. 5. Two supplementary angles are not congruent. 6. The square of an odd integer is odd. true false; 2 false; 90° and 90° true

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