1Ethiopian Livestock Feed Project, Beef Team Characterization of the livestock production system and potential of feed-based interventions in Adama and Arsi Negelle DistrictsEthiopian Livestock FeedProject, Beef Team
2INTRODUCTION What is FEAST? A tool to assess feed resource availability anduse at site-levelA systematic and rapid methodBroadens feed assessment to determine:whether livestock is an important livelihood strategyimportance of feed relative to other problems on the farmHelps in the design of site-specific strategies forfeed supply & utilization through technical andorganizational interventionsFEAST is still under refinement
3OBJECTIVES The Objectives were to: gain an understanding of the overall production system with a particular focus on the livestock feeding practices of farmers in Adama & Arsi Negele Districtsidentify key areas of intervention that could improve livestock productivity in the districts
4METHODOLOGY Adama District Arsi Negele District KechemaWonji KuriftuArsi Negele DistrictAli WayoKersa IlalaBoth Districts located in the Rift Valley
6Overview of the production system No.VariablesWeredasAdamaArsi NegeleKechemaKuriftuAli-WeyoKersa-Ilala1Land size2 ha1.5 ha2House hold67103Cropping Season4IrrigationnoyesNo5Labour504645Crops grownTef, wheat, maize, barley, beans and peasTef, wheat, maize, barley, beansTef, wheat, maize, barleyTef, wheat, maize, potatoFodder crops GrownLeucaena, Napier grass, Sesbania sesbanNapier grass, fodder beet, alfalfa and Sesbania sesbanvetch8LivestockCattle, sheep, goats, donkey and poultryCattle, sheep, goats, donkey, Horse and poultryCattle, sheep, goats, poultry donkey and9Source of Income100%9.1Agriculture477444259.2352637579.3189.4business19
7METHODOLOGY Adama Arsi Negele Proximity to woreda capital Kachema Wonji Kuriftu Ali Weyo Kersa IlalaProximity to woreda capitalPresence of Smallholder beef fattening activitiesSitesSelectedSelection criteria
8Numbers of participants from all kebeles. No. of ParticipantsWeredaAdamaArsi NegeleTotalKechemaKuriftuAli-WeyoKersa-IlalaMale151156Female59726202282
9Methodology of The FEAST Tool Group discussion with farmers:Kechema 20 (15 men and 5 women)kuriftu 20 (11 men and 9 women)Aliweyo 22 (15 men and 7 women)KersaIlala 20 (15 men and 5 women)PRAExerciseIndividual interviews with 3 farmersQuantitative informationIndividualFarmerSurveyData entered into FEAST TemplateIdeas for Interventions developedDataAnalysis &DevelopingInterventions
10Farming systems: average % contribution made by the various livelihood activities to total household income, ARSI NEGELEKersa IlalaALi Wayo
11Contribution of feed resources to animal diets, Adama
12Contribution of feed resources to animal diets (CP%), ADAMA- KechemaKuriftuFig. 21 & 21.The contributions made by the various feedstuffs (as a percentage) to the crudeprotein content of the diet of animals in kechema and wonji kuriftu kebele, Ethiopia
13Contribution of feed resources to animal diets, Arsi Nege
14Contribution of feed resources to animal diets (CP%), Arsi Negele Arsi NegelleAli wayoKersa ilalaFig. 22 & 23.The contributions made by the various feedstuffs (as a percentage) to the crudeprotein content of the diet of animals in Ali wayo and kersa ilala kebeles, Ethiopia
15Feed Resource Availability & Seasonality In kechema kebele the straw is usually fed as a whole fibre without any form of processing or manipulation prior to feeding and some times by mixing with concentratesIn wonji kuriftu the straw is fed by mixing with purchased concentrate feed.But in both kebeles of Arsi Negelle district the straw is usually fed by mixing with <atela> (local liquor by product) and concentrate feed.
16Feed Resource Availability & Seasonality Cultivated foragesCultivated fodder as component of diet, ME and CP for kechema and kuriftu kebeles comprising approximately of 24% and 27%; 19% and 24%; 21% and 16; respectively.But in Arsi Negele district (Ali wayo and kersa ilala) there is no cultivated fodder.
17Problems and Constraints: ADAMA KechemaKuriftu1stLivestock feed2ndVeterinary serviceCash/credit service3rd4thAI serviceLack of training5thLivestock inputs
18Problems and Constraints: ARSI NEGELE Ali WoyoKersa Ilala1stLivestock feed2ndCash/credit service3rdMarket info.& broker fraudulentAgricultural and livestock inputs4thLack of knowledgeVeterinary service5th
20Potential Interventions Introduce least-cost fattening rations that help gradual shift away from certain crop/cottage industry byproducts that have disagreeable attributes: laborious to the women & too high wood fuel consuming that aggravate deforestation & climate change.
21Limitations of the study In using quick questioners some questions were found ambiguous, e.g. sale of livestock and livestock products.In the selection procedure of three individuals for interview the selection might be fair if it is purposive rather than random. Besides, the sample size of only three respondents looks too small to represent the real situation.
22Limitations of the study The reliance on farmer estimates for calculating animal intake from grazing and intake from collected green fodder is a possible source of inaccuracy.Farmers do give a rough estimate of the weight of crop residue but in the FEAST software space is not reserved in which the data was supposed to be filled in. As a result, the data analysis output shows zero value. This actually appears to be a temporary problem.
23The Way ForwardThe current beef production level is definitely below consumption levels & market demands.The major impediment has been shortage of animal feed both in quantity and quality. For example, the fattening business in the kebeles is dependent upon crop residues & local liquor byproducts, all of which are unsustainable in supply.There is a need to intensify efforts on extension in aspects of efficient utilization of feed resources; improved livestock management; veterinary service, to mention just a few.Regardless of its considerable promise to the farming community and the national economy at large, farmers must be trained in beef fattening techniques, such as home mixing of low-cost fattening rations; etc.
24Lessons LearntWomen who had been isolated from community discussions were now observed to have equal or even better knowledge, zeal, willingness to learn and actively participated in debates of the PRA exercise. Participation of the farmers in group discussions regarding their own problems increased their awareness on various issues, what to expect from input supplies, credit services, market information, etc.The discussion forum served as an efficient experience-sharing platform.The participation of District Agriculture Offices and the Kebele DAs benefited them a lot on how to probe the problems of the farmers.