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Activating Background Knowledge Vocabulary Development Pam Wolff Asst. Program Administrator 610-987-8299.

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Presentation on theme: "Activating Background Knowledge Vocabulary Development Pam Wolff Asst. Program Administrator 610-987-8299."— Presentation transcript:

1 Activating Background Knowledge Vocabulary Development Pam Wolff Asst. Program Administrator

2 Anticipation/Reaction Guide True or False: What do you already know about reading informational/expository text?  Please read each statement.  Write True or False in the Before column.  We will share shortly. Thank you!

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4  How do we support student’s comprehension of content area literacy?  Why is important to activate schema (prior knowledge) before reading?  How do readers continue to build and revise schema before, during and after reading and why is this important?  How does vocabulary support the development of schema?

5  Deepen and extend content literacy knowledge  Extend knowledge of strategies to help students activate, build and revise schema – before, during and after reading  Extend knowledge of vocabulary strategies  Collectively plan the October 10 th turn around agenda

6  True or False: What do you already know about reading informational/expository text? Anticipation Guide Research:  Skilled readers anticipate (predict) what the text is about before reading.  Skilled readers think about what they already know and what they want to learn before reading.  Skilled readers make a personal connection before reading – become an active participant. Kylene Beers, 2003

7  Teaching of formal reading instruction tends to end after elementary school.  80% of elementary text is fiction.  80% of secondary text is nonfiction.  Students must be trained in the literacy of each subject field.  About 70% of adolescents need some type of remediation.

8  50% of students read fewer than four minutes a day.  30% read two minutes or fewer per day.  10% do not spend any time reading.  83% of faculty say that the lack of analytical reading skills contributes to students’ lack of success in a course.

9  The current and future job market requires workers who are highly literate, which means they can read with comprehension, assess and interpret information, and utilize it appropriately. The Principal’s Partnership

10  “Based on 2005 ACT-tested high school graduates, it appears that only about half of our nation’s ACT-tested high school students are ready for college-level reading.” ACT College Readiness Executive Summary

11  A high powered strategy:  Facilitates comprehension before/during/after reading  Develops vocabulary  Accesses and Assesses prior knowledge  Utilizes inquiry and reflection  Promotes collaborative learning

12  Each group member write ____ words on the post-its (one word per post-it)  Use a marker  Arrange words according to relationships  No right or wrong answers – these are predictions  Transfer to chart paper  Whole group discussion – Prepare to give rationale for predictions (select a reporter)

13  Metacognition  Schema  Essential Questions  Quick Write  Vocabulary  Scaffolding  Formative Assessment  Prior Knowledge  Learning Activities  Teaching Objectives  Reading Strategies  Student Engagement  Expository Text  Active Learning  Graphic Organizers  Exit Ticket  Comprehension  Fluency  Making Connections

14  How could you adapt and use this strategy with your students?

15 Think about a time when you were learning how to do something new. Think about the process, strategies, your feelings, etc.  Turn and Talk

16 What’s InterestingWhat’s Important

17 Gradual Release of Responsibility

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19  Why is it important to think about Gradual Release of Responsibility?  How could you adapt and use this strategy with your students?

20  Why is important to activate schema (prior knowledge) before reading?  How do readers continue to build and revise schema before, during and after reading and why is this important?

21  What do you know about schema?

22 3-2-1  3 Key Points – What resonates with you?  2 Questions  1 Quote to summarize the text 22

23 Schema

24 Before Reading  Vocabulary Word Sort  Connect Two During Reading  “The Golden Line” After Reading  Alphaboxes (Vocabulary)  The Final Countdown

25  Access prior knowledge  Interact with portions of the text prior to reading  Practice sequencing, find cause and effect relationships, draw comparisons, make inferences, and predict  Identify vocabulary that may be a problem  Construct meaning BEFORE they begin reading

26 Teaching vs. Assessing “Research indicates that little comprehension instruction takes place in classrooms beyond asking literal questions about texts.” ~M. Pressley (2002)

27 A study by Dolores Durkin found that for every 4,500 minutes of Language Arts instruction only 20 minutes is spent teaching comprehension strategies. This means that 40 seconds of every 90 minutes of reading instruction is spent teaching comprehension!

28  Why is it important to think about Activating, Building and Revising Schema?  How could you adapt and use these strategies with your students?

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30 Children need to encounter words frequently in a variety of contexts in order to internalize them. – at least 12 times McKeown, Beck, Omanson & Pople

31 Achievement Percentile Minutes of reading per day Words per year 90 th 40.42,357, th , th 1.651,000 Anderson, Wilson, & Fielding (1988). Reading Research Quarterly, 23, (3),

32 1. No knowledge 2. General sense 3. Narrow, context-bound knowledge 4. Having knowledge of a word, but not being able to recall it to use it appropriately 5. Rich knowledge of a words’ meaning in isolation, its relationship to other words, (and its extension to metaphorical uses), such as understanding what someone is doing when they are devouring a book Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002

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34 WordKnow it/ Use it Think I Know It Have Heard/Seen It No Clue Bidding Major Minor Tatty Devoid

35 35 The prime object of bidding is to locate an eight-card or better major suit fit. On this deal, each player held a four-card major, neither bid it and both were right! North correctly responded to his partner’s opening bid in his five-card minor, not four-card major. With a hand devoid of any distributional feature and a tatty four-card suit, South bypassed his major in favor of bidding one no trump. When North raised, South’s 14 points and good intermediates justified going on to game. Excerpt taken from “Bridge” by Omar Sharif and Tannah Hirsch in the Charleston Gazette on August 2, 2007

36  Is this word one most of my students don’t have a rich meaning for?  Is this a word my students need to know and could use in speaking and writing?  Is this word essential to understanding the selection my students will be reading?  Does this word have a word part I want to focus on?  Will it enhance further learning? Cunningham, 2009

37 3-Tier Model for Selecting Vocabulary Words Developed by Isabel Beck Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Low-frequency words; Technical words Words to Teach high frequency, high utility Known, common words

38 Tier One  Rarely require instructional attention  Consist of basic words  Examples: baby, clock, happy, walk, jump, hop, slide, girl, boy, dog

39 Tier Three  Made of words whose frequency of use is quite low and often limited to specific domains.  Best learned when a specific need arises  Examples: isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery

40 Three Tiers of Vocabulary Tier Two *Contain high frequency words that are found across a variety of domains *Have a powerful impact on verbal functioning *Must be words students have ways to express the meaning of the word. *Examples: coincidence, absurd, industrious, merchant

41 Three Tiers of Vocabulary Selecting Tier Two Words *Is it a useful word? *Will the student encounter it again? *Does the word relate to other words or ideas? *Will it enhance further learning?

42  Work with a partner.  Read the paragraph and identify 5 Tier Two words. (Reminder: Tier Two words are words that students should have an understanding of their meaning.)  Make a list of your 5 words and define them using vocabulary that a student would use.

43 Johnny Harrington was a kind master who treated his servants fairly. He was also a successful wool merchant and his business required that he travel often. While he was gone, his servants would tend to the fields and maintain the upkeep of his mansion. They performed their duties happily, for they felt fortunate to have such a benevolent and trusting master.

44 For thousands of years, sinuous strips of bituminous coal have lain beneath the wooded hills and valleys of Somerset County, Pennsylvania. Coal lured immigrants to the area in the 1800’s, and helped forge their reputation for hard work and hard living. For generations, men have earned their livelihoods—and all too often have lost their lives—in the mines’ dark confines. Reader’s Digest, “Nine Alive! Inside the Amazing Mine Rescue”, November 2002, pg. 164

45  Students develop meanings for words through multiple and varied encounters with words  Vocabulary is learned best when based on real, concrete experiences  Pictures and other visuals help solidify word meanings  Essential words should be directly taught  Teacher read-aloud and independent reading time should be scheduled into every day  Teach strategies including instruction for word parts, context, and effective use of dictionary  Instruction should include activities to develop word wonder Cunningham, 2009

46  Teaching specific words before reading helps both vocabulary learning and reading comprehension  Extended instruction that promotes active engagement with vocabulary improves word learning  Repeated exposure to vocabulary in many contexts aids word learning National Reading Panel, 2001

47  Revisit World Splash  Revise  Any questions?

48 ~Kylene Beers

49 THE MONTILLATION OF TRAXOLINE It is very important that you learn about traxoline. Traxoline is a new form of zionter. It is montilled in Ceristanna. The Ceristannians gristeriate large amounts of fevon and then bracter it to quasel traxoline. Traxoline may well be one of our must lukized snezlaus in the future because of our zionter lescelidge. Directions: Answer the following questions in complete sentences. Be sure to use your best handwriting. 1. What is a traxoline? 2. Where is traxoline montilled? 3. How is traxoline quaselled? 4. Why is it important to know about traxoline? THE MONTILLATION OF TRAXOLINE It is very important that you learn about traxoline. Traxoline is a new form of zionter. It is montilled in Ceristanna. The Ceristannians gristeriate large amounts of fevon and then bracter it to quasel traxoline. Traxoline may well be one of our must lukized snezlaus in the future because of our zionter lescelidge. Directions: Answer the following questions in complete sentences. Be sure to use your best handwriting. 1. What is a traxoline? 2. Where is traxoline montilled? 3. How is traxoline quaselled? 4. Why is it important to know about traxoline?

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51  How do we support student’s comprehension of content area literacy?  Why is important to activate schema (prior knowledge) before reading?  How do readers continue to build and revise schema before, during and after reading and why is this important?  How does vocabulary support the development of schema?

52  Revisit World Splash  Revise  Exit Ticket: ◦ What are 2 Key Learning from Today? ◦ One question you still have?

53 We want our students to make a lifetime commitment to reading and writing. And so we begin by painstakingly caring about the literacy landscape and then we proceed to do the best teaching imaginable. ~Shelley Harwayne

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