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Gender Roles What place did men and women have in society?

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Presentation on theme: "Gender Roles What place did men and women have in society?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender Roles What place did men and women have in society?

2 Were men the bosses? It is very important to realise that men AND women had important roles in EME. It is very important to realise that men AND women had important roles in EME. YOU WON’T GET POINTS IN ESSAYS BY SLAGGING OFF WOMEN ! YOU WON’T GET POINTS IN ESSAYS BY SLAGGING OFF WOMEN ! 16 th and 17 th C women in England were more restricted than they are today, but compared to other societies they had more advantages. 16 th and 17 th C women in England were more restricted than they are today, but compared to other societies they had more advantages. Men and women had rights under the law (both could sue and be sued) Men and women had rights under the law (both could sue and be sued) Both could buy, sell, own property and give it away in their wills. Both could buy, sell, own property and give it away in their wills. Both had important roles in the economy, and the raising of families. Both had important roles in the economy, and the raising of families. Both had, according to the church, an immortal soul Both had, according to the church, an immortal soul

3 Role of Men in EME Public life, Church, Family and Economy (4 spheres of life) Public life, Church, Family and Economy (4 spheres of life) Public = Public = Men had first right to throne (before elder female siblings) Men had first right to throne (before elder female siblings) Only men could be in Parliament = also only men could vote in parliamentary elections Only men could be in Parliament = also only men could vote in parliamentary elections All legal officials - judges, jurors, lawyers – were men. Women’s only role was specific to female prisoners. All legal officials - judges, jurors, lawyers – were men. Women’s only role was specific to female prisoners. All military officers were men (women generally had to men’s jobs while they were away fighting) All military officers were men (women generally had to men’s jobs while they were away fighting) Men carried most of the burden of public duties, they often had to act for their wives in areas where a single woman would do it herself Men carried most of the burden of public duties, they often had to act for their wives in areas where a single woman would do it herself Reinforces idea of being subject to the husband Reinforces idea of being subject to the husband

4 Role of Men in EME cont.. Church Church Women could not be priests or ministers Women could not be priests or ministers Nuns were very influential in Roman Catholic church but they had little formal power Nuns were very influential in Roman Catholic church but they had little formal power Only men could preach in public Only men could preach in public Lay officials (non-religious) were almost all men Lay officials (non-religious) were almost all men Economy Economy Less exclusively male but still dominated by men. Less exclusively male but still dominated by men. Men owned most of the land and ran businesses Men owned most of the land and ran businesses Women were not allowed to compete with men for jobs, even if they were capable Women were not allowed to compete with men for jobs, even if they were capable Mostly men that inherited land (even if there were daughters) Mostly men that inherited land (even if there were daughters)

5 Role of Men in EME cont.. Family life for a Man Family life for a Man Man was head of the family – if they didn’t exercise that responsibility they were ridiculed Man was head of the family – if they didn’t exercise that responsibility they were ridiculed Had to provide $$ support Had to provide $$ support Household management usually done by women, but some men shared role Household management usually done by women, but some men shared role Men had little to do with kids when they were young – not included in childbirth Men had little to do with kids when they were young – not included in childbirth Men typically raised the boys and wives raised the girls Men typically raised the boys and wives raised the girls Plenty of opportunities for women to do things by themselves – men were excluded from Plenty of opportunities for women to do things by themselves – men were excluded from Childbirth; raising of babies; female discussion groups Childbirth; raising of babies; female discussion groups

6 ROLE OF WOMEN Why were women considered inferior to men?

7 RELIGIOUS REASONS EVE WAS CREATED AFTER ADAM, AND FROM HIS BODY. THEREFORE, MAN WAS SUPERIOR TO WOMEN EVE WAS CREATED AFTER ADAM, AND FROM HIS BODY. THEREFORE, MAN WAS SUPERIOR TO WOMEN A WOMAN HAD TEMPTED ADAM TO EAT THE FORBIDDEN FRUIT A WOMAN HAD TEMPTED ADAM TO EAT THE FORBIDDEN FRUIT WOMEN WERE PROHIBITED FROM SPEAKING IN CHURCH WOMEN WERE PROHIBITED FROM SPEAKING IN CHURCH MEDICAL REASONS MEDICAL REASONS MANS PHYSICAL STRENGTH MEANT MEN WERE SUPERIOR MANS PHYSICAL STRENGTH MEANT MEN WERE SUPERIOR MEN WERE THOUGHT TO HAVE LARGER BRAINS MEN WERE THOUGHT TO HAVE LARGER BRAINS SOME MEDICAL WRITERS CONSIDERED WOMEN “DEFORMED MALES” AT CONCEPTION SOME MEDICAL WRITERS CONSIDERED WOMEN “DEFORMED MALES” AT CONCEPTION THE EMOTIONAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE MEANT WOMEN WERE INCAPABLE OF MAKING RATIONAL CHOICES THE EMOTIONAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE MEANT WOMEN WERE INCAPABLE OF MAKING RATIONAL CHOICES

8 SOCIAL REASONS MEDIEVAL SOCIETY HAD PLACED GREAT IMPORTANCE ON FIGHTING SKILLS WHICH REQUIRED WEAPONS OF GREAT STRENGTH MEDIEVAL SOCIETY HAD PLACED GREAT IMPORTANCE ON FIGHTING SKILLS WHICH REQUIRED WEAPONS OF GREAT STRENGTH THE NATURAL DISADVANTAGES WOMEN HAD IN PERFORMING HARD PHYSICAL LABOUR GAVE MEN AN ADVANTAGE IN PHYSICAL WORK THE NATURAL DISADVANTAGES WOMEN HAD IN PERFORMING HARD PHYSICAL LABOUR GAVE MEN AN ADVANTAGE IN PHYSICAL WORK CLEARLY, SOME WOMEN ARE STRONGER THAN SOME MEN - THIS FACT WAS IGNORED IN WRITINGS AT THE TIME CLEARLY, SOME WOMEN ARE STRONGER THAN SOME MEN - THIS FACT WAS IGNORED IN WRITINGS AT THE TIME IT WAS FELT WOMENS ROLE WAS AT HOME LOOKING AFTER THE CHILDREN IT WAS FELT WOMENS ROLE WAS AT HOME LOOKING AFTER THE CHILDREN

9 WOMENS ROLES : PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LEGAL POSITION LEGAL POSITION o A WARNING: DON’T ASSUME WOMEN HAD NO RIGHTS UNDER LAW. SOME ESSAYS ALSO ARE VAGUE OR EXTREME ON THIS o COMPLICATED SITUATION: WOMEN HAD SPECIAL PROTECTION. o EG FEME SOLE: AN UNMARRIED WOMAN ( FEME SOLE) HAD MORE LEGAL RIGHTS THAN HER MARRIED SISTER: FEME COVERT o THE DOCTRINE OF COVERTURE WAS IMPORTANT. THIS MEANS A MARRIED COUPLE ARE ONE PERSON - AND THAT ONE PERSON IS THE HUSBAND o THE HUSBAND WAS LEGALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR HIS WIFE AND CHILDREN o WOMEN HAD FEW RIGHTS OVER HER BODY. WIFE BEATING WAS LEGAL, BUT WAS FROWNED UPON BY SOCIETY o HER EARNINGS BECAME THE HUSBANDS, AS DID ANY INHERITANCES

10 CONTINUED EXEMPTIONS TO COVERTURE EXISTED EG LONDON. WOMEN COULD TRADE HERE DUE TO LOCAL CUSTOMS EXEMPTIONS TO COVERTURE EXISTED EG LONDON. WOMEN COULD TRADE HERE DUE TO LOCAL CUSTOMS A WOMAN COULD CONSENT TO MARRY AT 12, COMPARED TO 14 FOR A BOY. HOWEVER, THE AVERAGE WAS 26 A WOMAN COULD CONSENT TO MARRY AT 12, COMPARED TO 14 FOR A BOY. HOWEVER, THE AVERAGE WAS 26 A MARRIED WOMAN HAD THE RIGHT TO BE MAINTAINED BY HER HUSBAND A MARRIED WOMAN HAD THE RIGHT TO BE MAINTAINED BY HER HUSBAND LOCAL AUTHORITIES COULD MAKE A WOMAN AGED 14 TO 40 GO INTO SERVICE UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF A MAN. LOCAL AUTHORITIES COULD MAKE A WOMAN AGED 14 TO 40 GO INTO SERVICE UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF A MAN. AS A GENERAL RULE, WOMEN IN EME HAD MORE LEGAL RIGHTS THAN COUNTERPARTS IN WESTERN EUROPE AS A GENERAL RULE, WOMEN IN EME HAD MORE LEGAL RIGHTS THAN COUNTERPARTS IN WESTERN EUROPE

11 PUBLIC OFFICE WOMEN COULD NOT VOTE IN ELECTIONS, SIT IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS, BE JURORS OR SHERIFFS WOMEN COULD NOT VOTE IN ELECTIONS, SIT IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS, BE JURORS OR SHERIFFS WOMEN ONLY CAME INTO PUBLIC SPHERES WHEN FEMALE AND MALE SPHERES CAME INTO CONTACT EG WITCHCRAFT CASES - TESTIFYING ABOUT MARKS. WOMEN ONLY CAME INTO PUBLIC SPHERES WHEN FEMALE AND MALE SPHERES CAME INTO CONTACT EG WITCHCRAFT CASES - TESTIFYING ABOUT MARKS. WOMEN PERFORMED WORK SUCH AS WARDENS FOR FEMALE PRISONERS, NURSES, WARDROBE MISTRESSES WOMEN PERFORMED WORK SUCH AS WARDENS FOR FEMALE PRISONERS, NURSES, WARDROBE MISTRESSES CHURCH CHURCH WOMEN COULD NOT HOLD OFFICE IN THE CHURCH. PROTESTANTISM BANNED NUNNERIES WOMEN COULD NOT HOLD OFFICE IN THE CHURCH. PROTESTANTISM BANNED NUNNERIES WOMEN WERE IMPORTANT IN LOCAL PARISHES WOMEN WERE IMPORTANT IN LOCAL PARISHES

12 Women in the Economy Still male-dominated but not as much as other parts of society Still male-dominated but not as much as other parts of society Many widows were allowed to keep running their late husband’s business eg. Livery companies (clothing etc) Many widows were allowed to keep running their late husband’s business eg. Livery companies (clothing etc) Some women licensed as surgeons but main occupations were in schools, hospitals, food and hospitality industry. Some women licensed as surgeons but main occupations were in schools, hospitals, food and hospitality industry.

13 Match terms Coverture Coverture Feme Covert Feme Covert Feme Sole Feme Sole Livery companies Livery companies Jury of matrons Jury of matrons Unmarried woman Examined some women prisoners Allowed some women to practice their late husband’s trade Married woman Doctrine that said husband wife legally one person

14 The Female Sphere Women had their own lives, very separate to men Women had their own lives, very separate to men When they met together away from men, all modesty was lost. When they met together away from men, all modesty was lost. They had their own separate economy of gift and exchange – embroidery, textiles, food and plants – all gifts contributed to their standard of living somehow. They had their own separate economy of gift and exchange – embroidery, textiles, food and plants – all gifts contributed to their standard of living somehow. Women had very close friends, who they met regularly, confided in, and when apart wrote letters which revealed ‘passionate friendships’ Women had very close friends, who they met regularly, confided in, and when apart wrote letters which revealed ‘passionate friendships’ Perhaps they did this to try and lessen the impact of restrictions on their lifestyle? Perhaps they did this to try and lessen the impact of restrictions on their lifestyle? Whatever the reason it is clear that despite the restrictions placed on women they still led full, active lives – much of it away from their husbands ! Whatever the reason it is clear that despite the restrictions placed on women they still led full, active lives – much of it away from their husbands !

15 What factors affected family life and the role of women? High death rate (30/1000 pa) greatest disrupter to family life. Many people died while their children were still young (and dependent). Some families even died out completely. High death rate (30/1000 pa) greatest disrupter to family life. Many people died while their children were still young (and dependent). Some families even died out completely. Re-marriage and blended families caused problems. Re-marriage and blended families caused problems. High mortality in young kids – only ¾ of children lived till 15. High mortality in young kids – only ¾ of children lived till 15. Long illnesses and permanent disability impoverished families. Long illnesses and permanent disability impoverished families. Unemployment could lead to men leaving family to find work Unemployment could lead to men leaving family to find work Even upper class families had to endure separation if Dad was JP, MP or royal officials. Even upper class families had to endure separation if Dad was JP, MP or royal officials.

16 Long Term Trends Final stages of enclosure may have affected some families Final stages of enclosure may have affected some families Enclosure – fencing in of common grazing land to make it private property = increased numbers of unemployed. Enclosure – fencing in of common grazing land to make it private property = increased numbers of unemployed. Fall in real wages – led to falling living standards – made people wait longer to get married Fall in real wages – led to falling living standards – made people wait longer to get married Internal (to cities from rural areas) and overseas migration also affected many families. Internal (to cities from rural areas) and overseas migration also affected many families. Many men took off to live in American colonies – to escape religious persecution in some cases. The people that were on the Mayflower were Puritans – extreme Protestants. Many men took off to live in American colonies – to escape religious persecution in some cases. The people that were on the Mayflower were Puritans – extreme Protestants.

17 Crisis Situations Poor harvests in 1590’s, 1620’s and disrupted the economy and led to increased internal migration – people looking for jobs and food. Poor harvests in 1590’s, 1620’s and disrupted the economy and led to increased internal migration – people looking for jobs and food. Epidemic diseases Epidemic diseases Often followed bad harvests Often followed bad harvests Bubonic plague most feared – happened in London in 1563, 1578, 1582, 1593, 1625 and Last one most well-known Bubonic plague most feared – happened in London in 1563, 1578, 1582, 1593, 1625 and Last one most well-known ‘New ague’ – probably a severe form of influenza in 1558/9 ‘New ague’ – probably a severe form of influenza in 1558/9 Smallpox in 1562 – nearly killed Elizabeth I Smallpox in 1562 – nearly killed Elizabeth I Disrupted economy Diseases caused instability Unintended mobility as they run away from disease Killed family members

18 Civil War Crawford suggests that the Civil War intensified the existing problems and risks Crawford suggests that the Civil War intensified the existing problems and risks Civil War led to death of about 10% of all the men in England – largest casualty rate before WW1 Civil War led to death of about 10% of all the men in England – largest casualty rate before WW1 Large numbers in armies separated husbands from families, postponed marriage and lowered birth rate Large numbers in armies separated husbands from families, postponed marriage and lowered birth rate Families suffered Families suffered Men away from home; high taxation to run armies; disruption to trade; compulsory billeting of soldiers. Men away from home; high taxation to run armies; disruption to trade; compulsory billeting of soldiers. Clergymen lost their incomes when parishes taken by enemy Clergymen lost their incomes when parishes taken by enemy

19 Effect on Women of Civil War Women affected by war – had to run their homes, look after soldiers, prepare food, act as prostitutes, fire wardens Women affected by war – had to run their homes, look after soldiers, prepare food, act as prostitutes, fire wardens They contracted diseases from soldiers They contracted diseases from soldiers Suffered great deal of emotional harm Suffered great deal of emotional harm Some families were divided in war Some families were divided in war Lady named Mary Rich daughter of Parliamentarian Admiral and sister-in- law of Royalist commandeer. Lady named Mary Rich daughter of Parliamentarian Admiral and sister-in- law of Royalist commandeer. Susan, Countess of Denbigh, husband on Royalist, her eldest son on other side. Susan, Countess of Denbigh, husband on Royalist, her eldest son on other side. Women became much more politically active during the Civil War Women became much more politically active during the Civil War Women favoured peace initiatives – some joined radical sects. They petitioned Parliament in support of Levellers – But never asked for the vote. Women favoured peace initiatives – some joined radical sects. They petitioned Parliament in support of Levellers – But never asked for the vote. Restoration period was time of relative ‘normality’ in families. Restoration period was time of relative ‘normality’ in families.

20 ESSAY Describe the nature of family life in EME between Evaluate the extent of stability and change in family life between Describe the nature of family life in EME between Evaluate the extent of stability and change in family life between Incl. Incl. Description of situation in context. Description of situation in context. Analysis of continuity vs change Analysis of continuity vs change Evaluate influence of issue on people Evaluate influence of issue on people POSS INTRO POSS INTRO The family unit was very important in early modern England. Men and women had very distinct roles inside this unit but both were considered vital. Families were based on love and loyalty, and they faced many challenges to their stability from Many of these challenges forced changes to the roles of men and women as parents and partners. The family unit was very important in early modern England. Men and women had very distinct roles inside this unit but both were considered vital. Families were based on love and loyalty, and they faced many challenges to their stability from Many of these challenges forced changes to the roles of men and women as parents and partners.

21 Description in context What was meant by ‘family’ AT THE TIME What was meant by ‘family’ AT THE TIME Through family wealth and property passed on - primogeniture. Explain why. Through family wealth and property passed on - primogeniture. Explain why. Social status of family (either governNING class or goverNED) had impact on roles of members – give examples, e.g. economic and emotional roles. Social status of family (either governNING class or goverNED) had impact on roles of members – give examples, e.g. economic and emotional roles. War affected stability and coherence of families War affected stability and coherence of families

22 Continuity and change over time Great deal stayed same – people wanted stability and to keep order Great deal stayed same – people wanted stability and to keep order Nuclear family was most common - wife at home; man in charge Nuclear family was most common - wife at home; man in charge Governing classes saw marriage as best way to maintain wealth and property Governing classes saw marriage as best way to maintain wealth and property Gradual relaxation of parent’s role in choosing partner Gradual relaxation of parent’s role in choosing partner Many factors affecting stability of family weren’t under control Many factors affecting stability of family weren’t under control Eg. High death rate; need to find work; poverty (various reasons); disease outbreaks; trade disruptions due to war or epidemics Increasing urbanisation Civil War Divided families Dramatic increase in death rate Spread of disease Land loss/gain from war – also loss of status Women taking on man’s role during war

23 Influence of situation on people Should discuss influence of war; poor harvests in 1590’s; plague, urbanisation of working men. Should discuss influence of war; poor harvests in 1590’s; plague, urbanisation of working men. Also include disruptions due to re-marriage, widowhood, arranged marriages (though these less important than war) Also include disruptions due to re-marriage, widowhood, arranged marriages (though these less important than war) There was a lot that could have destabilised the family unit, but it managed to maintain its integrity throughout this period There was a lot that could have destabilised the family unit, but it managed to maintain its integrity throughout this period Therefore could not have been as weak as some historians have assumed. Therefore could not have been as weak as some historians have assumed.


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