Presentation on theme: "Today we will: - Review exercise - Australia to 1914 from last year - Check Bookwork policy is signed - Revision exercises - Video Do now: (and do every."— Presentation transcript:
Today we will: - Review exercise - Australia to 1914 from last year - Check Bookwork policy is signed - Revision exercises - Video Do now: (and do every time you walk into the classroom) 1. Take out your book, diary, pencil case, ruler - write today's date in your book 2. Write the heading Today we will : and copy list above 3. Move directly on to Review Exercise Write the heading Review Exercise in your books Write 5 facts, ideas, concepts that you remember from the previous lesson (In today's case the topic from last year - Australia to 1914) Was there anything from the previous lesson that was unclear, confusing that needs to be clarified? Write this under the heading Clarification
Australia’s Physical Environments
Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics
Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics
Various Geological Processes Take Place at Plate Boundaries
SIZE of AUSTRALIA Area of Australia = square kilometres Australia is the sixth largest country on earth. Only Russia, Canada, China, the USA and Brazil are larger In terms of relative size, Australia is about 50 percent larger than Europe (not including the nations of the former Soviet Union) Australia’s Exclusive Economic Zone Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is the area of ocean over which a state has special rights over the exploration, exploitation, conservation and management of the sea bed and marine resources. Generally, a country’s EEZ extends to a distance of 370 kilometres (200 nautical miles) out from its coastline. The exception to this rule occurs when EEZs overlap; in these cases, it is up to the states to determine the actual boundary. Australia has the world’s third largest EEZ, behind the USA and France, but ahead of Russia. The total area ( square kilometres) actually exceeds that of its land territory
CharacteristicExplanation World’s lowest continent Australia has the world’s lowest average elevation. Its few mountain ranges are very low by world standards and most of the country is a broad, flat plain Geologically Stable Australia has some of the oldest land surfaces on earth. Much of the surface has been exposed to the forces of weathering and erosion for long periods of geological time. In comparison, Europe and North America contain some landscapes dating back only – years, when the great ice sheets melted. Australia is the only continent that has no tectonic mountain building or active volcanoes. Driest inhabited continent Australia receives the lowest annual average rainfall of any continent, apart from Antarctica. More than one-third is classified as arid (receiving less than an average of 250 mm per annum) and another one-third is semi-arid (receiving 250–500 mm per annum).Australia’s climate is highly variable, largely because of changing ocean current temperatures, some of which generate El Niño effects Few large rivers and little runoff Australia has fewer large rivers and less runoff than any other continent except Antarctica. The low rainfall means that, for its size, Australia has few large rivers and accumulates little fresh water on its surface. The Murray–Darling river system carries about 22 billion cubic metres of water compared with the 70 billion cubic metres carried by the Rhine in Europe and the 593 billion cubic metres carried by the Mississippi in the USA. Australia’s rivers have the most variable flow of any in the world. Australia has large internal drainage basins. Nutrient-poor soils Dryness, geological stability, the ancient nature of the land surface and long exposure to weathering and erosion have created poor soils. Less than 10 per cent of Australian soils are reasonably productive and can sustain agriculture or dense vegetation. Australian topsoils are relatively thin AUSTRALIA’S PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT - Summary
CharacteristicExplanation Fire-prone Large fires occur within Australia at any time of year. It is the most fire-prone continent. Much of the native vegetation is adapted to fire Rich in minerals Australia has more than 20 per cent of the world’s stock of recoverable bauxite, iron ore, uranium, mineral sands and diamonds. World’s largest island The coastline of Australia extends for km World’s largest coral reef The Great Barrier Reef extends some 2500 km along the Queensland coast. The reef is a World Heritage area. World’s largest sand island Fraser Island in southern Queensland is a World Heritage Area. Biologically diverse Australia is one of the twelve most biologically diverse countries in the world. This is the result of Australia’s long geological isolation from other continents (following the break-up of Gondwana) and its many climate zones. Vegetation - Dominated by eucalyptus and acacias plant types Acacias are widespread in southern continents, but eucalyptus are confined to Australia and New Guinea. Most Australian trees are adapted to dry conditions (sclerophyllous) and low- nutrient soils. Globally significant, ancient rainforests Australian rainforests are extremely old and have survived in relatively small areas where the climate can support their continued existence. They contain many species whose origin can be traced back to the Gondwanan forests Unique mammal fauna Australia is the world centre for marsupials (mammals whose young develop in a pouch), with over 144 species. Australia has two of the world’s three species of monotremes (mammals that lay eggs). Monotremes found in Australia are the Platypus and the Shortbeaked Echidna. An Echidna is also found in New Guinea.
Australia’s geographical dimensions and external territories
Australia’s four major landform regions
Australia’s Natural Resources Natural Resources are elements of the physical environment that can be used to satisfy human needs and wants.
Mineral and Energy Resources Australia is richly endowed with a variety of both mineral and energy resources. The discovery of Gold in the 1850s brought prosperity and an influx of immigrants to Australia. More recent mineral discoveries have enhanced Australia’s reputation as a major world exporter of mineral and energy products.
Mineral Resources Energy Resources BauxiteBlack coal Mineral sandsBrown coal CopperOil DiamondsNatural gas GoldUranium Iron Lead Manganese Nickel Opal Silver Tin Zinc
Soil Soil is an important natural resource as it is essential to Australia’s agricultural output. The best soils are found on river floodplains and on the slopes and plains west of the Great Divide, where grasslands and woodlands once existed. Today, these black and red-brown soils have been put to agricultural use. Unfortunately, Australia lacks a high quantity of good quality soil which can be used for resource.
Forests Australia’s forest resources are mostly concentrated along the east coast of the continent, the south-west tip of Western Australia and the west coast of Tasmania. Of more concern is the rate of land clearing which is reducing Australia’s forest resources. Sustainable forest management needs to be introduced in the future, such as timber plantations for this resource to survive.
Fishing Grounds Despite our extensive coastline, Australia’s fish resources are not large by world standards. Australia’s fishing grounds need to be managed sustainably. Fish Farming or aquaculture is of a growing importance for these types of resources to survive into the future.
WHY IS AUSTRALIA SO DRY? Cold ocean currents off the west coast of Australia Low rates of evaporation from the Indian Ocean result in little moisture moving on to the continent from the west. Flatness of the Australian continent The absence of any significant mountain ranges over most of the continent means that there is little opportunity for rainfall caused by orographic uplift. In the east, the Great Dividing Range limits the amount of rainfall penetrating inland. Dominance of high-pressure systems Because of Australia’s mid-latitude location its climate is dominated by high pressure systems. These are usually associated with stable atmospheric conditions; that is, clear skies and gentle winds. Shape of the continent Australia has a compact shape and no significant bodies of water extend very far inland. This is important because it means that moist winds are prevented from penetrating to inland Australia, keeping rainfall low.