Presentation on theme: "Nonviolent Resistance to Black Militancy"— Presentation transcript:
1Nonviolent Resistance to Black Militancy 1955-1968
2Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956) Secretary of Montgomery NAACPNonviolent Civil Disobedience: refused to leave her seat designated for whites (December, 1955)Arrested, tried, and convicted for disorderly conduct and violating a local ordinanceLeaders organized the boycott50,000 people participated (over 90% of African Americans in Montgomery)381 daysBus revenue reduced by 80%Desegregated buses in November of 1956
3Civil Rights Organizations CORE: Congress of Racial EqualitySCLC: Southern Christian Leadership ConferenceSNCC (Snick): Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
4Freedom Rides 1961Interstate journeys to test court ruling organized by COREAnniston, AL: bus firebombedBirmingham, AL: Public Safety Commissioner allowed the KKK 15 minMontgomery, AL: mob beat passengersJackson, MS: arrestedEventually pressured the Kennedy administration to get the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) to issue a desegregation order
5March on Washington August 28, 1963 Famous “I Have a Dream” SpeechJoan Baez & Bob Dylan 200,000 – 300,000 people
6Kennedy Assassinated, LBJ assumes Presidency Nov. 22, 1963 Elected in 1964LBJ’s “Great Society” allowed for Civil Rights Laws to be enacted24th Amendment: made poll taxes illegalCivil Rights Act of 1964: Eliminated discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, and gender. All Americans had the right to enter all public facilities.Voting Rights Act of 1965: Outlawed discrimination in voting (literacy tests).
7Violent Reaction Medgar Evers is murdered June 12, 1963 Freedom Summer murders 1964Violence in “Bombingham” (16th St. Baptist Church Bombing September 15th, 1963 and Selma (Bloody Sunday March 7, 1965)Malcolm X is assassinated (Feb. 21st. 1965)Watts Race Riots (August, 1965)King is assassinated April 4, 1968
8Malcolm X (1925-1965) “By any means necessary” Born Malcolm Little in OmahaEarly and young adult years were roughTrouble with the lawFound the Nation of Islam while in prisonBecame Muslim, changed surname to “X”Communism & CriticismLeaves Nation of Islam and goes on pilgrimage to MeccaAssassinated 1965 by 4 armed men, sent by whom?Conspiracy? To this day, nobody knows who was responsible.Legacy was Black Power movement
10The Movement Shifts to Black Militancy Black Power: Stokely Carmichael transforms SNCC to Black Power – white members kicked out (c. 1966).Black power = the idea that Blacks should stand up for themselves, demand their rights and fight back to protect themselves if needed.Black Panther Party ( ) and militancy: committed to stopping oppression “by any means necessary” = violenceHuey Newton & Bobby Seale
1110 Point Program The Ten Point Program We want power to determine the destiny of our black and oppressed communities' education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present-day society.We want completely free health care for all black and oppressed people.We want an immediate end to police brutality and murder of black people, other people of color, all oppressed people inside the United States.We want an immediate end to all wars of aggression.We want full employment for our people.We want an end to the robbery by the capitalists of our Black Community.We want decent housing, fit for the shelter of human beings.We want decent education for our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society.We want freedom for all black and oppressed people now held in U. S. Federal, state, county, city and military prisons and jails. We want trials by a jury of peers for all persons charged with so-called crimes under the laws of this country.We want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice, peace and people's community control of modern technology.