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Nonviolent Resistance to Black Militancy

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1 Nonviolent Resistance to Black Militancy 1955-1968

2 Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956)
Secretary of Montgomery NAACP Nonviolent Civil Disobedience: refused to leave her seat designated for whites (December, 1955) Arrested, tried, and convicted for disorderly conduct and violating a local ordinance Leaders organized the boycott 50,000 people participated (over 90% of African Americans in Montgomery) 381 days Bus revenue reduced by 80% Desegregated buses in November of 1956

3 Civil Rights Organizations
CORE: Congress of Racial Equality SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference SNCC (Snick): Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

4 Freedom Rides 1961 Interstate journeys to test court ruling organized by CORE Anniston, AL: bus firebombed Birmingham, AL: Public Safety Commissioner allowed the KKK 15 min Montgomery, AL: mob beat passengers Jackson, MS: arrested Eventually pressured the Kennedy administration to get the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) to issue a desegregation order

5 March on Washington August 28, 1963
Famous “I Have a Dream” Speech Joan Baez & Bob Dylan  200,000 – 300,000 people

6 Kennedy Assassinated, LBJ assumes Presidency Nov. 22, 1963
Elected in 1964 LBJ’s “Great Society” allowed for Civil Rights Laws to be enacted 24th Amendment: made poll taxes illegal Civil Rights Act of 1964: Eliminated discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, and gender. All Americans had the right to enter all public facilities. Voting Rights Act of 1965: Outlawed discrimination in voting (literacy tests).

7 Violent Reaction Medgar Evers is murdered June 12, 1963
Freedom Summer murders 1964 Violence in “Bombingham” (16th St. Baptist Church Bombing September 15th, 1963 and Selma (Bloody Sunday March 7, 1965) Malcolm X is assassinated (Feb. 21st. 1965) Watts Race Riots (August, 1965) King is assassinated April 4, 1968

8 Malcolm X (1925-1965) “By any means necessary”
Born Malcolm Little in Omaha Early and young adult years were rough Trouble with the law Found the Nation of Islam while in prison Became Muslim, changed surname to “X” Communism & Criticism Leaves Nation of Islam and goes on pilgrimage to Mecca Assassinated 1965 by 4 armed men, sent by whom? Conspiracy? To this day, nobody knows who was responsible. Legacy was Black Power movement


10 The Movement Shifts to Black Militancy
Black Power: Stokely Carmichael transforms SNCC to Black Power – white members kicked out (c. 1966). Black power = the idea that Blacks should stand up for themselves, demand their rights and fight back to protect themselves if needed. Black Panther Party ( ) and militancy: committed to stopping oppression “by any means necessary” = violence Huey Newton & Bobby Seale 

11 10 Point Program The Ten Point Program
We want power to determine the destiny of our black and oppressed communities' education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present-day society. We want completely free health care for all black and oppressed people. We want an immediate end to police brutality and murder of black people, other people of color, all oppressed people inside the United States. We want an immediate end to all wars of aggression. We want full employment for our people. We want an end to the robbery by the capitalists of our Black Community. We want decent housing, fit for the shelter of human beings. We want decent education for our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want freedom for all black and oppressed people now held in U. S. Federal, state, county, city and military prisons and jails. We want trials by a jury of peers for all persons charged with so-called crimes under the laws of this country. We want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice, peace and people's community control of modern technology.

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