What is Agriscience? The application of scientific principles and new technologies to agriculture.
Agriscience is…… An applied science because it uses principles learned in biology, chemistry, and physics (the basic sciences) in a practical way.
Examples of Agriscience Agronomy Uses biology and chemistry to discover new ways to control weeds in crops. Entomology Uses biology and chemistry to study insect life. Agricultural Engineering Uses physics to develop new machinery.
Agriscience employs….. The scientific method to solve problems. The steps to the scientific method are…. Identify the problem. Review literature. Form a hypothesis. Prepare a project proposal. Design the experiment. Collect the data. Draw conclusions. Prepare a written report.
What is Agriculture? Activities concerned with the production of plants and animals, and related supplies, services, mechanics, products, processing, processing, and marketing.
USDA refers to agriculture as…. “Agriculture/ Agribusiness and renewable natural resources”. Another definition is food, fiber, and environmental systems.
Why is Agriculture/Agriscience Important? Largest “employer” and the largest source of income in the United States and North Carolina.
Opportunities in Agriculture Agricultural production is supported by many more careers than actually exist in production. Many careers in agriscience products & distribution are needed to grade, transport, process, package, & market agriculture commodities. Many careers for agriculture supplies & services are also important. Projections show that the average size of farms in the U.S. will increase while the number of farms will decrease.
Opportunities in Agriculture Twenty percent of all jobs in the U.S. are agriscience related. In addition to farming, agriscience jobs help support farmers to meet the world’s food & fiber needs. Areas include: Production Processing, products, and distribution Supplies and services.
World Outlook The world population will grow as more people beget more people. More children are surviving to adulthood. More adults are living longer. Population growth will…. Add stress to environmental systems of air, water, soil, and natural resources. Create challenges to meet the demands for food and fiber (clothing and shelter).
Trends for Agriculture/Agriscience Agriculture will always be an essential industry. Increased commercialization of agriculture will continue. New types of farming such as aquaculture (fish farming and farming the sea) will be used as well as traditional farming methods.
Trends for Agriculture/Agriscience An expanded view of agriculture is necessary.
What are Renewable Natural Resources? Resources provided by nature that can replace or renew themselves. Important both economically and for posterity’s sake to maintain life. Agriculture & resources management will include pollution control.
Natural Resources - Forestry Timber management for lumber, poles, post, plywood, and etc. is another part of the agricultural industry.
Other Examples include: Wildlife Water Fish Soils Air
What are Commodities? Agricultural products which are sold. Examples: Milk Corn Wheat Beef Cotton
U.S. Agricultural Commodities #1 State Rankings Beef Dairy Broilers Eggs Turkeys Texas California Georgia Iowa Minnesota
U.S. Agricultural Commodities #1 State Rankings Swine Horses Sheep Fruit Vegetables Iowa Texas California
U.S. Agricultural Commodities #1 State Rankings Cotton Wheat Corn Soybeans Peanuts Texas Kansas Iowa Illinois Georgia
Top 10 U.S. Ag Commodity Exports #1 Soybeans #2 Corn* #3 Wheat #4 Cotton #5 Misc. Hort Products #6 Poultry Meat** #7 Feed #8 Edible Tree Nuts #9 Pork #10 Feed Grain *Consistently ranks in top 5 in U.S. grain exports year after year. **Number 1 meat export as far as tonnage shipped from the U.S.
U.S. Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: Food Safety Inspection Commodity Grading Meat Fruit Vegetables Eggs
U.S. Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: School Lunch Program Food Stamps Agricultural Cooperatives U.S. Forest Service Cooperative Extension Agricultural Marketing
North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #1 in the following commodities. Tobacco Sweetpotatoes
North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #2 in the following commodities. Hogs Christmas Trees Turkeys
North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #3 in the following commodities. Pickles Trout Total Poultry & Eggs
North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #4 in the following commodities. Blueberries Broilers Greenhouse/Nursery Strawberries
North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #5 in the following commodities. Catfish Peanuts Snap Beans
North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is ranked in the top 10 nationally in the following commodities. Apples Cotton Grapes Tomatoes Watermelons Total Cash Receipts
North Carolina Agriculture Ranking in Agricultural Income #1 – Hogs #2 – Broilers #3 – Greenhouse & Nursery*** #4 – Tobacco #5 – Turkeys ***Recently passed tobacco to crack the top 3.
SOURCE OF FARM CASH RECEIPTS, NORTH CAROLINA, 2003 $6,916,349,000
North Carolina Agriculture Top Ten Counties in Farm Cash Receipts, North Carolina, 2003
North Carolina Agriculture Agricultural Research North Carolina has two land grant universities. North Carolina State University (1887) North Carolina A&T State University (1891)
NC Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: All agricultural issues Weights & Standards Food & Drugs in North Carolina NC State Fair
NC Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: Marketing Farmer’s Markets Goodness Grows Program Research Stations Structural Pests Veterinarian Program
Professional Agricultural Organizations Allow professionals the opportunity to network, learn, and communicate. Provide trade shows and journals to update members on new methods, products, and technology. Use membership dues to finance commodity advertisement, trade journals, and educational programs for members.
Cooperative Extension Service Located in all 100 counties and the Cherokee Indian Reservation. Provides information for those working in agriculture. Best free source of information for small agricultural businesses. Administers the 4H program.
Progress in Agriculture Mechanization helps 2% of America’s work force to meet the food & fiber needs of our nation. There has been a reduction from 90% of the nation’s populace involved in farming 200 years ago.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events George Washington In 1785, he became the first American to own mules. Also introduced agricultural concepts such as terracing, crop rotation, and the use of cover crops.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Eli Whitney Invented the cotton gin in 1793. Turned cotton into an usable product by removing cottonseed from the cotton fiber.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Cyrus McCormick Invented the grain reaper in 1834 to save labor in cutting wheat, oats, and similar crops. Later a threshing machine was added and it became known as a combine.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Edmund W. Quincy Invented the mechanical corn picker in 1850. Anna Baldwin Changed the dairy industry in 1878 by inventing a milking machine to replace hand milking.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Joseph Glidden Invented barbed wire in 1874. Used for livestock fencing. Tamed the west by allowing ranches with fixed boundaries to be established.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events John Froelich Invented the 1 st gasoline powered tractor that could go forwards and backwards in 1892. His Waterloo Tractor Company was later bought out by the John Deere Co. in 1918.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Benjamin Holt Invented the traction system found on modern day tanks and bulldozers. Company went one to become Caterpillar Inc. This is where tractors get their name.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Harry Ferguson Invented the 3 point hitching system on tractors. Met with Henry Ford in 1938 and had the famous “Handshake Agreement”.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events In 1954, the tractor finally surpasses the mule as the main source of agricultural power.
Improving Life through Agriscience The Green Revolution Process whereby many countries became self sufficient in food production in the 1960s by using improved crop varieties and practices.
Improving Life through Agriscience The Green Industry The modern horticulture industry with emphasis on turf and landscape plants.
Agriscience and the Future The average American farmer produces enough food and fiber for 128 people. As the world’s population increases, it will require a more sophisticated agriscience industry to keep pace with demand.
Agriscience and the Future The science of food production, processing, and distribution will require: College graduates to fill roles as scientists, engineers, and other professionals. USDA reported an increased demand for graduates from agricultural colleges in the 90s.