2What is Agriscience?The application of scientific principles and new technologies to agriculture.
3Agriscience is……An applied science because it uses principles learned in biology, chemistry, and physics (the basic sciences) in a practical way.
4Examples of Agriscience AgronomyUses biology and chemistry to discover new ways to control weeds in crops.EntomologyUses biology and chemistry to study insect life.Agricultural EngineeringUses physics to develop new machinery.
5Agriscience employs….. The scientific method to solve problems. The steps to the scientific method are….Identify the problem.Review literature.Form a hypothesis.Prepare a project proposal.Design the experiment.Collect the data.Draw conclusions.Prepare a written report.
6What is Agriculture?Activities concerned with the production of plants and animals, and related supplies, services, mechanics, products, processing, processing, and marketing.
7USDA refers to agriculture as…. “Agriculture/ Agribusiness and renewable natural resources”.Another definition is food, fiber, and environmental systems.
8Why is Agriculture/Agriscience Important? Largest “employer” and the largest source of income in the United States and North Carolina.
9Opportunities in Agriculture Agricultural production is supported by many more careers than actually exist in production.Many careers in agriscience products & distribution are needed to grade, transport, process, package, & market agriculture commodities.Many careers for agriculture supplies & services are also important.Projections show that the average size of farms in the U.S. will increase while the number of farms will decrease.
10Opportunities in Agriculture Twenty percent of all jobs in the U.S. are agriscience related.In addition to farming, agriscience jobs help support farmers to meet the world’s food & fiber needs.Areas include:ProductionProcessing, products, and distributionSupplies and services.
11World OutlookThe world population will grow as more people beget more people.More children are surviving to adulthood.More adults are living longer.Population growth will….Add stress to environmental systems of air, water, soil, and natural resources.Create challenges to meet the demands for food and fiber (clothing and shelter).
12Trends for Agriculture/Agriscience Agriculture will always be an essential industry.Increased commercialization of agriculture will continue.New types of farming such as aquaculture (fish farming and farming the sea) will be used as well as traditional farming methods.
13Trends for Agriculture/Agriscience An expanded view of agriculture is necessary.
14Divisions of Agriculture AgribusinessAgriscience MechanicsAgronomyAnimal ScienceBiotechnologyHorticultureNatural Resources
15What is Agribusiness?Commercial firms that have developed with or stem out of agriculture.
25What is Horticulture?Involves the producing, marketing fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants. (Green Industry)Continues to expand as the standard of living is raised.
26Horticulture includes…. Greenhouse ManagementNursery ManagementLandscape ArchitecturePlant PhysiologyIntegrated Pest Management
27What are Renewable Natural Resources? Resources provided by nature that can replace or renew themselves.Important both economically and for posterity’s sake to maintain life.Agriculture & resources management will include pollution control.
28Natural Resources - Forestry Timber management for lumber, poles, post, plywood, and etc. is another part of the agricultural industry.
30What are Commodities? Agricultural products which are sold. Examples: MilkCornWheatBeefCotton
31U.S. Agricultural Commodities #1 State Rankings BeefDairyBroilersEggsTurkeysTexasCaliforniaGeorgiaIowaMinnesota
32U.S. Agricultural Commodities #1 State Rankings SwineHorsesSheepFruitVegetablesIowaTexasCalifornia
33U.S. Agricultural Commodities #1 State Rankings CottonWheatCornSoybeansPeanutsTexasKansasIowaIllinoisGeorgia
34Top 10 U.S. Ag Commodity Exports #1 Soybeans#2 Corn*#3 Wheat#4 Cotton#5 Misc. Hort Products#6 Poultry Meat**#7 Feed#8 Edible Tree Nuts#9 Pork#10 Feed Grain*Consistently ranks in top 5 in U.S. grain exports year after year.**Number 1 meat export as far as tonnage shipped from the U.S.
35U.S. Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: Food Safety InspectionCommodity GradingMeatFruitVegetablesEggs
36U.S. Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: School Lunch Program Food StampsAgricultural CooperativesU.S. Forest ServiceCooperative ExtensionAgricultural Marketing
37North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #1 in the following commodities.TobaccoSweetpotatoes
38North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #2 in the following commodities.HogsChristmas TreesTurkeys
39North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #3 in the following commodities.PicklesTroutTotal Poultry & Eggs
40North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #4 in the following commodities.BlueberriesBroilersGreenhouse/NurseryStrawberries
41North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #5 in the following commodities.CatfishPeanutsSnap Beans
42North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is ranked in the top 10 nationally in the following commodities.ApplesCottonGrapesTomatoesWatermelonsTotal Cash Receipts
43North Carolina Agriculture Ranking in Agricultural Income#1 – Hogs#2 – Broilers#3 – Greenhouse & Nursery***#4 – Tobacco#5 – Turkeys***Recently passed tobacco to crack the top 3.
44SOURCE OF FARM CASH RECEIPTS, NORTH CAROLINA, 2003 $6,916,349,000
45North Carolina Agriculture Top Ten Counties in Farm Cash Receipts, North Carolina, 2003
47North Carolina Agriculture Agricultural Research North Carolina has two land grant universities.North Carolina State University (1887)North Carolina A&T State University (1891)
48NC Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: All agricultural issues Weights & StandardsFood & Drugs in North CarolinaNC State Fair
49NC Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: Marketing Farmer’s MarketsGoodness Grows ProgramResearch StationsStructural PestsVeterinarian Program
50Professional Agricultural Organizations Allow professionals the opportunity to network, learn, and communicate.Provide trade shows and journals to update members on new methods, products, and technology.Use membership dues to finance commodity advertisement, trade journals, and educational programs for members.
51Cooperative Extension Service Located in all 100 counties and the Cherokee Indian Reservation.Provides information for those working in agriculture.Best free source of information for small agricultural businesses.Administers the 4H program.
53Progress in Agriculture Mechanization helps 2% of America’s work force to meet the food & fiber needs of our nation.There has been a reduction from 90% of the nation’s populace involved in farming 200 years ago.
54Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events George WashingtonIn 1785, he became the first American to own mules.Also introduced agricultural concepts such as terracing, crop rotation, and the use of cover crops.
55Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Eli WhitneyInvented the cotton gin in 1793.Turned cotton into an usable product by removing cottonseed from the cotton fiber.
59Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Cyrus McCormickInvented the grain reaper in 1834 to save labor in cutting wheat, oats, and similar crops.Later a threshing machine was added and it became known as a combine.
63Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Edmund W. QuincyInvented the mechanical corn picker in 1850.Anna BaldwinChanged the dairy industry in 1878 by inventing a milking machine to replace hand milking.
64Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Joseph GliddenInvented barbed wire in 1874.Used for livestock fencing.Tamed the west by allowing ranches with fixed boundaries to be established.
65Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events John FroelichInvented the 1st gasoline powered tractor that could go forwards and backwards in 1892.His Waterloo Tractor Company was later bought out by the John Deere Co. in 1918.
67Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Benjamin HoltInvented the traction system found on modern day tanks and bulldozers.Company went one to become Caterpillar Inc.This is where tractors get their name.
69Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Harry FergusonInvented the 3 point hitching system on tractors.Met with Henry Ford in 1938 and had the famous “Handshake Agreement”.
70Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events In 1954, the tractor finally surpasses the mule as the main source of agricultural power.
71Improving Life through Agriscience The Green RevolutionProcess whereby many countries became self sufficient in food production in the 1960s by using improved crop varieties and practices.
72Improving Life through Agriscience The Green IndustryThe modern horticulture industry with emphasis on turf and landscape plants.
73Agriscience and the Future The average American farmer produces enough food and fiber for 128 people.As the world’s population increases, it will require a more sophisticated agriscience industry to keep pace with demand.
74Agriscience and the Future The science of food production, processing, and distribution will require:College graduates to fill roles as scientists, engineers, and other professionals.USDA reported an increased demand for graduates from agricultural colleges in the 90s.