Presentation on theme: " 1. Defining research objectives 2. Selecting a sample 3. Designing the questionnaire format 4. Pretesting the questionnaire 5. Pre-contacting."— Presentation transcript:
1. Defining research objectives 2. Selecting a sample 3. Designing the questionnaire format 4. Pretesting the questionnaire 5. Pre-contacting the sample 6. Writing a cover letter and distributing the questionnaire 7. Following up with non respondents 8. Analyzing questionnaire data
It is important that you define your research problem and list the specific objectives to be achieved, or hypotheses to be tested, by the questionnaire.
Once your research objectives or hypotheses are clearly stated, you should identify the target population from which your sample will be selected. You need to select a sample for whom your questionnaire items will be highly salient. (i.e., how important or prominent a concern it is for them)
To avoid the negative attitudes of educators make careful construction an administration of your questionnaire.
You should carry out a thorough pilot test of the questionnaire before using it in your study. The pilot test should include a sample of individuals from the population from which you plan to draw your respondents. Also, the pilot-test form of the questionnaire should provide space for respondents to make criticisms and recommendations for improving the questionnaire. Another useful strategy is to ask respondents to state in their own words what they think each question means. The questions should be revised and retested until they are understood accurately by all or most members of the pilot test sample.
Researchers have found that contacting respondents before sending a questionnaire increases the rate of response. Researchers can send a letter, postcard, or telephone call, but some evidence suggests that telephone contacts are the most effective. When contacting respondents make sure and identify yourself, discuss the purpose of the study, and request cooperation.
The cover letter should be brief, but it must convey certain information and impressions. When using a questionnaire that includes sensitive or potentially threatening questions, you should provide a specific description of how confidentiality will be maintained. One of the items needed in the cover letter is a request that the questionnaire be returned by a particular date. › Make sure to give the respondent plenty of time to conduct the questionnaire, but not too much time that they push it aside and forget about it. Typically a week from when the questionnaire is received is plenty of time. › Make sure and include a stamped envelopes with the questionnaire, so that individuals can respond with a minimum of inconvenience.
A few days after the time limit specified on the cover letter, it is desirable to contact non-respondents by sending a follow up letter, along with another copy of the questionnaire and another self-addressed envelope. Successful follow-up letters usually take the approach that the researcher is confident the individual wished to fill out the questionnaire, but perhaps because of some oversight or an error on the researcher’s part, it was overlooked.
Quantitative data was analyzed to yield frequencies and percentages of respondents checking each response category on a particular closed-ended questions. It is commonly assumed that questionnaires and interviews are only suitable, or most suitable, for descriptive research.