Presentation on theme: "Presenter: Luiza Zeqiri June, 2011. 1 、 Theoretical and Practical Importance of the Present Study 2 、 Introduction 3 、 Previous Studies4 、 Present Study5."— Presentation transcript:
Presenter: Luiza Zeqiri June, 2011
1 、 Theoretical and Practical Importance of the Present Study 2 、 Introduction 3 、 Previous Studies4 、 Present Study5 、 Research Findings & Discussion6 、 Conclusion7 、 Limitations & Recommendations Overview
Theoretical and Practical Importance of the Present Study To make peer feedback less confusing and less complex To make teachers and students more aware about the writing process To stress the importance of multiple drafts To emphasize the process approach to writing To raise the awareness of the value of giving peer feedback
Introduction In writing activity, peer feedback means other writer to read and to give feedback on what other writer has written (Hyland, 2005). Storch (2004) claims that the use of peer feedback application in class is still restricted Linda B. Nilson argues that peer feedback has questionable validity, reliability, accuracy Instructors consider much of it too uncritical, superficial, vague, content- focused Thus, the present study focused on written peer feedback and both spoken & written teacher feedback. Written feedback was given in the form of comments, suggestions, underlining of mistakes
Previous Studies Related to Types of Feedback Ferris, (2003); Headgcock & Lefkowitz, (1996); Kroll, (2001) Ferris & Hedgcock (1998) On early drafts when students generate, focus and organize their ideas the teacher response should focus on feedback that will lead them to develop their ideas, completely and successfully. On later drafts, writers must be motivated to proofread, edit and correct their papers. John Truscott (1996) Grammar correction not only is ineffective but it is even harmful. Grammar correction has no place in writing classes and should be abandoned.
Previous Studies Regarding Students’ Attitudes Toward Feedback to Writing Hartney (2007) SS with high self esteem value all feedback, positive or negative SS with low self esteem interpret even positive feedback negatively Leki (1990) SS ignore teacher’s feedback Difficulties understanding Feel aggression towards teachers attempt to correct their writing Hong (2006) states that SS: Don't appreciate peer feedback and they dislike it Feel underestimated when given negative peer feedback When receiving comments and negative feedback this is a sign that their papers are read Mendonca & Johnson, (1994); Saito & Fujita, (2004) in a number of studies involving both ESL and EFL students revealed that the majority had favorable attitudes toward peer feedback Mangelsdorf (1992) states that SS find PF as very helpful for improving the content and organization.
Previous Studies Regarding Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Peer Feedback Hyland (2000) states that PF: encourages more student participation in the classroom, gives them more control and makes them less passively teacher-dependant. Lee, (2009:130) claims that Peer feedback: may not be beneficial if SS’ knowledge, experience and language skills are insufficient Lundstorm and Baker (2009): PF can be as beneficial to SS who provide it as to those who receive it Spear, (1988); Hyland, (2005) discuss that: it is important to distribute devices in the form of checklists or rubrics to be used in peer feedback Williams, (2005) Peer feedback has positive influence if students know how to give feedback, meaning that they are previously trained by the teacher
A list of peer feedback advantages by Williams (2005) It provides writers with an authentic audience. SS understand what works in their writing and what doesn’t. Peers may focus on issues that the teacher has not noticed or prefers not to address It provides feedback in a collaborative, low -risk environment Learners take on a more active role in writing process, rather than waiting passively for T guidance The interaction involved in peer response can push the development of all L2 skills Peer response can give the T an opportunity to work with individual SS while their classmates read and respond to one another’s work It helps learners get to know one another better
A List of Peer Feedback Drawbacks by Williams (2005) SS may not have the skills and experience to offer advice which is what their peers need Their suggestions may be vague or unhelpful They may not believe they have anything valuable to contribute They may be unaccustomed to this kind of learning activity They may not believe their peers can offer any valuable advice, and therefore they ignore their suggestions They may hesitate to offer any negative responses They may view it as a waste of time or a chance to chat The T may not have adequately prepared SS for the activity
Previous Studies Questioning the Effectiveness of Peer Feedback Ferris and Min (2008), Hedgcock (2005), Rollinson (2005), Hinkel (2004), Saito and Fujita (2004), and Hyland (2002) believe that: EFL SS will always question the purposes and advantages of this technique which is true with SS who are accustomed to teacher-fronted classroom. SS feel that a better writer such as their T is the one who is qualified to provide them with useful comments, which can act as a barrier to the success of peer sessions. Some SS might view receiving comments from colleagues whose English is at the same or even at a lower level than theirs as not being a valid alternative for the ‘real deal’ and hence they might resist peer review activities.
#1 RESEARCH QUESTION What is the impact of peer feedback on EFL learners’ writing performance? How do teachers perceive peer feedback and what are teachers’ attitudes toward peer feedback? #2 RESEARCH QUESTION #3 RESEARCH QUESTION Research Questions What are advanced and intermediate students’ attitudes toward peer feedback?
Procedure COLLABORATIVE WORK-pre- peer feedback ANAYSING PARAGRAPHS SS GIVE PEER FEEDBACK AS A GROUP WRITE A ‘FOR & AGAINST’ ESSAY TEACHER FEEDBACK T-S CONFERENCING SS APPLY THE FEEDBACK –WRITE THE 2 ND DRAFT WRITE THE 1 ST DRAFT DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH SS GIVE PEER FEEDBACK SS APPLY THE FEEDBAKC-WRITE THE 2 ND DRAFT
Instruments/Data collection Qualitative Group feedback 4 paragraph samples Teacher feedback/conferencing to a paragraph & essay 1 st & 2 nd Draft Peer feedback to a descriptive paragraph 1 st & 2 nd Draft Quantitative Student questionnaire Teacher questionnaire
Participants 24-Student Participants Advanced students English Department Age: 20-21 SEEU 3 RD Year 21-Student participants Intermediate students LC Age: 18-19 SEEU 1 st & 2 ND Year 10-Teacher participants 10 English teachers Employees at SEEU
Results & Discussion Regarding the 1 st Research Question
Advanced—4Proficient—3Needs Improvement—2Not Yet—1 LeadStrong lead makes the reader want to find out more Good lead but could be altered though the reader still wants to continue Lead is unremarkable and needs some work Lead is unimaginative or too obvious and needs to be rewritten Idea DevelopmentLength of paper is appropriate and flows smoothly from one idea to the next A few instances of clutter and/or not enough elaboration, but for the most part flows evenly Good ideas but at times overshadowed by too much and/or too simplistic writing making paper seem choppy Paper is far too long/short and loses focus or is boring because of overwriting and or no elaboration OrganizationPaper has excellent structure and is well organized Paper has structure and organization though lacks unity because of occasional confusing details Paper has some structure evident but at times is hard to follow or is not well organized Paper’s structure is greatly lacking, interfering with reader’s ability to understand piece VoiceAuthor’s voice is clearly evident and piece is thoughtful and well- written in a sophisticated and unique style Author’s voice and personality is evident and effort was clearly put into the piece making piece enjoyable to read Author’s voice is developing and shows some effort but at times the piece needs more work Author’s voice is not evident and the entire story needs more work Word ChoicePaper uses rich and sophisticated word choice and varied language throughout Paper uses good word choice and some varied wording Paper has simplistic word choice and some words are at times repetitive Paper has too simplistic word choice and is far too repetitive Sensory DetailsPaper is rich in sensory details and shows rather than tells creating a vivid picture without overloading the reader Paper has some strong sensory details making it enjoyable to read but there may be too few or not enough details, at times telling rather than showing Paper has too few sensory details or far too many so the piece mainly tells rather than shows or use clichés causing reader to lose interest Paper is lacking in sensory details and tells rather than shows using empty words and too many clichés ClosingThe final sentences clinch the piece well leaving the reader completely satisfied The ending is good but does not fully clinch the paper, leaving the reader wanting more The ending is too simple—it doesn’t fit the flow of the story or contains weak language leaving the reader confused There is no real ending leaving the reader unsatisfied Descriptive Writing Rubric - Content
Advanced—4Proficient—3Needs Improvement—2Not Yet—1 FormatPaper has a proper heading and centered title, typed @ 12 point font, double spaced with proper margins. Has most of the proper formatting but wrong font, or spacing, etc. Missing most aspects of formatting but not all. No regard for format. Sentence StructurePaper is well written using a variety of simple and complex sentence structures creating a smooth rhythm to the piece Papers has a few sentence errors and/or is lacking in variety or complexity Paper is beginning to be difficult to understand as there are many poorly constructed sentences or fragments Paper is difficult to read because of too simplistic sentence structure and/or many fragments Paragraph PlacementStrong paragraph placement throughout paper Paragraphs are generally appropriate throughout though at times are too long and/or short Paragraphs are only somewhat evident throughout paper Paragraph placement is almost entirely or lacking all together Conventions—spelling, punctuation, grammar, and capitalization Paper is proofread well with only 1 or 2 errors Paper has between 3 to 5 errorsPaper has between 6 to 8 errors as proofreading was not done well Paper has more than 9 errors and shows little to no evidence of proofreading Verb TenseVerb tense remains consistent throughout Verb tense is mainly consistent, though sometimes moves from past to present Verb tenses are inconsistent throughout, affecting reader’s understanding of paper Verb tenses are so inconsistent, paper is difficult to understand Descriptive Writing Rubric - Mechanics
Results & Discussion Regarding the #2 nd Research Question Teachers’ Attitudes I have tried it but it never worked; SS do not take it seriously. Varies significantly at different levels. One has to make sure that the task is focused on one or two errors that the students have a level of confidence in. It helps SS in organizing their ideas in a better and a well organized way. PF helps SS a lot to improve their writing. SS take more responsibility; they interact with each other, learn from each other and are more relaxed when their friends check their writing. PF improves SS’ writing skills in terms of generating comments regarding the content and grammar. It develops critical thinking and interaction in class.
Results & Discussions Regarding the #2 nd Research Question Teachers’ Attitudes PF can be effective when one of the SS has more developed skills and teaches the other one whose skills are less developed. PF can make SS aware of their gaps and encourage learning. PF can fail to happen or provide good results due to lack of motivation, mobility to interact or deal with correction or criticism. PF can help SS improve their writing ability enormously only if the SS are trained how to give feedback to their peers. Without guidelines our SS don’t take it very seriously, hence teachers need to spend some time to teach them first the importance of PF and then implement it. Very important and useful part of class not only for writing but also presentations, etc.
Results & Discussions Regarding the #3 rd Research Question Advanced Students’ Comments Student 1: Sometimes it might not be effective because SS have different writing styles and they might not be objective. Student 2: It’s important but I prefer teacher feedback. Student 3: I have a positive attitude and I think it’s helpful. Student 4: I find peer written feedback as a very useful technique. It makes you more confident to continue using the style you have. Student 5: It is difficult. You have to analyze the paper, but it’s so interesting. Student 6: Positive. I can see my errors, my strengths and weaknesses. Student 7: It is a useful way of improving your writing and helps to have a critical approach towards your paper. Student 8: We learn from others’ mistakes. Student 9: Peer feedback helps students improve their writing skills as well as critical thinking. Student 10: Peer feedback helps a lot and is the best tool.
Results & Discussions Regarding the #3 rd Research Question Advanced Students’ Comments Student 11: As a future teacher you learn many things by analyzing the papers and get an image of how to provide feedback. Student 12: We improve our skills, critical thinking, etc. Student 13: Writing peer feedback is very useful for us because with that we can see the level of our knowledge, whether we can notice the mistakes that others’ make while writing. Student 14: I like when my imagination is shared with my peers. Student 15:. It is good because you can see how your colleagues like and appreciate your work. Student 16: Sharing opinions helps in better communication between peers.
Results & Discussions Regarding the #3 rd Research Question Intermediate Students’ Comments Student 1: Peer written feedback is important. We share ideas with other students, and we can feel what it means to be a teacher. Student 2: Peer feedback is useful because my classmates give me advice about the organization and they help me to improve the grammar and the vocabulary. Student 3: I think it helps with organization. Student 4: I think that it’s important, but in one way it’s not good because our friends may give comments which are not effective for us. Student 5: It wasn’t useful for me. I think this kind of method should be used with advanced English groups, because I don’t think that any of my classmates can improve my English. And with this group I think it’s a waste of time. Student 6: It is important because you can get many ideas from your friend’s paper, so if you are not good at writing actually it helps you, but it is hard to correct the mistakes. Student 7: We waste time but we can see what the opinion of the other colleague is, we can compare it and we can write it better. It’s difficult with the mistakes. I’m not sure if something is right or wrong. Teacher feedback is better, because I trust me teacher more than my peers.
Results & Discussions Regarding the #3 rd Research Question Advanced Students’ Comments
Results & Discussions Regarding the #3 rd Research Question
Advanced Students’ Comments
Results & Discussions Regarding the #3 rd Research Question Advanced Students’ Comments
Conclusions 1.The results showed that SS wrote more improved papers after implementing the peer feedback 2.Based on the research findings it was concluded that peer feedback was mainly about the content and organisation 3.Peer feedback proved more beneficial for the advanced group of SS 4.Teachers should emphasize peer feedback to writing and apply it more frequently 5.SS should be taught how to use PF (give feedback and apply it)
Conclusions 6. Teachers think that PF not only helps in improving writing skills but it: (Ferris and Hedgcock (2005), Saito and Fujita (2004) Storch (2004) and Ferris (2003)) facilitates the development of analytical and critical reading and writing skills enhances self-expression fosters critical thinking Critical thinking is, as Halpern (2003) defines, the ―cognitive skills and strategies that increase the likelihood of a desired outcome, thinking that is purposeful, reasoned, and goal-directed—the kind of thinking involved in solving, problems, formulating inferences, calculating likelihoods, and make decisions PF helps learners become more self-aware promotes a sense of co-ownership encourages students to contribute to decision making
Limitations and Recommendations Limitations: Not a longitudinal study Small scale of participants inclusion of a larger number of teacher and SS participants Only two writing genres Recommendations: Whether checklists/rubrics/forms should be used More elaborate comparison between the effectiveness of teacher and peer feedback
“There is no great writing, only great rewriting.” Justice Brandeis