Presentation on theme: "Introduction to PR Research #3: Bibliographies, Literature Reviews, Field Observations & Case Studies Based on information from S. Zhou & W.D. Sloan (Eds.)."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to PR Research #3: Bibliographies, Literature Reviews, Field Observations & Case Studies Based on information from S. Zhou & W.D. Sloan (Eds.). (2011). “Research Methods in Communication” Dr. LaRae M. Donnellan, APR, CPRC School of Journalism & Graphic Communication Florida A&M University Spring 2012
Literature Reviews Bibliography = “List of the printed materials – the books and articles – on a topic or subject area.” (p. 77) Literature review = “Summary and interpretation of that material.” (p. 77) Goal: Add “significantly” to research on a given topic (http://deborahgabriel.com/2011/06/20/literature-review- completed-at-last/#.TxTxwPnxXVo)
Benefits of Literature Reviews Give us an understanding of the background of an issue Help us understand what other researchers have already found and how they interpret their findings Categories of topics Broad, general topic (e.g., civil rights movement) Narrow topic (e.g., role of the press in the movement) (http://legrandcirque.tumblr.com/post/15230335344/ma lcolm-x-at-a-civil-rights-rally-usa-1960s)
What NOT to do Do not over-rely on the Internet. Do not ask for research help on a listserv. (http://etoolbox.wikispaces.com/Internet)
Starting Your Literature Search Survey standard textbooks. Check THEIR references! Examine specialized bibliographies. Search annual journal indexes. Search online databases. Find theses and dissertations. (http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_733.aspx)
Strategies Differentiate between scholarly and nonscholarly articles. Take notes as you read. Put the authors’ exact words in quotation marks. Cite the pages in your notes. Watch for common threads. Classify what you discover. (http://www.lifehack.org/articles/productivity/advice-for-students- taking-notes-that-work.html)
What Literature Searches Do Provide the contextual background for your study. Explain where your study fits into the broader literature (p. 85). Don’t just list everything you find. CLASSIFY and EXPLAIN! Be exhaustive. (http://www.daveswhiteboard.com/archives/3438)
Structure of Literature Reviews Introduction Provide an overview of the focus of your paper, review the literature, and offer conclusions & suggestions for future research. State two to four broad themes of the literature on your topic. Explain, if possible, why various schools of thought emerged. Explain how YOUR findings fit into the literature. (http://us-intellectual-history.blogspot.com/2011/08/what- constitutes-philosophical-system.html)
Writing Annotated Bibliographies (From “Annotated Bibliography Example” by Teaching American History, http://www.tahvt.org/AnnotatedBibExample.pdf) Content: What is the resource about? Is it relevant to your research? Purpose: What is it for? Why was the book or article written? Usefulness: What does it do for your research? Reliability: Is the information accurate? Do other sources support the conclusions? Authority: Is it written by someone who has the expertise to author the information? What are the author’s credentials? Currency: Is it new? Is it up-to-date for the topic? Ease of use: Can a “real person” use this resource? What is the reading level of the resource?
Annotated Bibliography Assignment Search the scholarly literature. Review 10-12 articles/books that address the history, causes, effects and targeted publics of hazing, plus strategies and tactics for eradicating this problem. Each annotation should be between 150-200 words and conform to APA style. Use your own words. Give credit to others for their words. Cornell University Library Purdue Online Writing Lab
Field Observations (http://mattjduffy.com/tag/guerilla-marketing/) “Observing the behavior associated with a specific phenomenon and unit of study.” (p. 265) Example: How consumers respond to guerilla marking, such as street performances Unit of study: Individuals, a family, groups of friends, etc.
Types of Field Observations (http://www.ehow.com/info_8411682_observatio n-step-business-research-methods.html/) Overt observation Disclose intent to observe to participants. Overt participation Inform other participants that you are participating and studying their behavior. Covert observation Unobtrusively observing others. Covert participation Researcher embedded in subculture.
Case Studies “Empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context.” (Yin, as quoted on p. 269) Four characteristics (Merriam, as cited on p. 269) Particular to a specific situation Provide detailed descriptions in context Provide heuristic, or problem-solving, value and insights Rely on inductive reasoning, such as observation, to discover insights about what you are studying (http://www.brooksbell.com/blog/2010/09/eff ective-case-study-creation)
Case Studies Assignment Explore scholarly literature and popular sources about how another university handled a safety crisis on its campus. Write a five to 10-page double-spaced paper. Follow AP style. Summarize the crisis. Review primary documents, such as campus and local media reports, to chronicle what happened. Review campus crisis communication plan, if any. How did the campus handle communication and PR issues? A review of the scholarly and trade literature will help. Lessons learned that might help FAMU address hazing crisis Literature cited throughout; “References” section at the end Follow APA style.