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Introduction to PR Research #2: Ethics, Library Research & Databases Based on information from S. Zhou & W.D. Sloan (Eds.). (2011). “Research Methods in.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to PR Research #2: Ethics, Library Research & Databases Based on information from S. Zhou & W.D. Sloan (Eds.). (2011). “Research Methods in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to PR Research #2: Ethics, Library Research & Databases Based on information from S. Zhou & W.D. Sloan (Eds.). (2011). “Research Methods in Communication” Dr. LaRae M. Donnellan, APR, CPRC School of Journalism & Graphic Communication Florida A&M University Spring 2012

2 PRSA Code of Ethics Advocacy Honesty Loyalty Independence Fairness Expertise (http://mediatechpr.com/2010/09/21/rt-prnewser-prsa-code-of-ethics-celebrates-10-years/)

3 Ethical Strategies Deontological (DEE – ON – TOE – LOGICAL) Actions are either right or wrong. No lie is a good lie. Ethical behavior must match a “higher law.” Teleological (TELL – EE – OH – LOGICAL) Utilitarian approach Predicting consequences and then doing what is “best” for the most people. Objective Follows a “scientific” approach Is adaptable to new data, ideas Attempts to be unbiased (http://blogs.dallasobserver.com/unfairpark/20 11/10/city_council_to_crash_smu_ethi.php)

4 Applying Ethical Strategies CASE STUDY #1 (p. 40): Do you, as PR director, release information about the closing of the site that disposes of your medical waste? CASE STUDY #2: Do you, as PR director, include a photograph in a recruitment brochure that has been altered to include people who were not in the original photo but who definitely are part of your target public? (http://www.roncastle.com/p hotography-tennessee.htm

5 Applying Ethical Strategies CASE STUDY #3 (pp ): Evaluate “Dr. Evan Bowen’s” research question: “How many more unfavorable stories do the news media publish and air about [CANDIDATE X] than about her opponents?” Evaluate Dr. Bowen’s research methodology: He codes the content of the news stories himself, nor does he define what he means by “favorable” or “unfavorable” stories. The media report the results of Bowen’s study. Is this ethical? (http://thinkprogress.org/politics/ 2011/05/03/162589/rick- santorum-endorses-ryan-plan- end-medicare/

6 Applying Ethical Strategies CASE STUDY #4 (pp ): Carol Gilligan found that girls hide their unique understanding of human relations to “protect themselves” from patriarchy and, thus, sabotage their chances to succeed, especially in science and math. The American Association of University Women (AAUW) commissioned a study in 1991 to prove that girls were being shortchanged in the classroom. Was this ethical? (http://diverseeducation.com/article/14655/)

7 Applying Ethical Strategies CASE STUDY #5 (p. 47): You work for a PR agency that has been hired by a tobacco company to promote sales. You are aware that there is scientific evidence linking smoking to cancer. You recommend creating a “grassroots” group titled “The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition” (TASSC) to advocate for “sound science,” arguing that the EPA yields to special interests. You argue that the same “junk science” used to discredit Alar, additives, etc., is now being used against tobacco. Is this ethical? (http://stopsmokingaidstoday.com/2011/11/2 5/stop-smoking-aids-coupons/)

8 Applying Ethical Strategies CASE STUDY #6 You work for a PR agency that has been hired by a natural gas company to promote this fuel as a “better” alternative to oil and coal. You are aware that there is scientific evidence questioning the safety of fracking as a technique for extracting the gas. You recommend creating a “grassroots” group and an ad campaign to promote natural gas as a “clean fuel.” Is this ethical? (http://earthfirstnews.wordpress.com/2011/11/10/oil-executive- calls-anti-fracking-movement-an-insurgency-applies-psy-ops/

9 Ethical Treatment (http://www.cnn.com/2010/HEALTH/10/01/guatemala.syphilis.tuskegee/ind ex.html) No coercion Informed consent No deception Internal validity: Measuring what you say you are External validity: Results are generalizable to the specific public Reliability: Results can be replicated IRB: Institutional Review Board

10 Professional Obfuscators (http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/ /AJPH ) People (often wearing PR mantel) paid by industrialists to stop meddling by “do-gooders” such as “consumer advocates, government regulators, progressive politicians” (p. 46) 1920s: lead 1950s: chemical 1960s: asbestos 1970s: plastics & oil 1980s & 1990s: tobacco 1990s & 2000s: energy Seven tobacco CEOs testify before Congress in 1994 that tobacco is not addictive.

11 Using Databases Relational databases organize information using: Fields (single piece of data, such as year) Records (complete sets of fields) File (tables of records) Queries (Structured Query Language, or SQL) LNameFNameCityAgeSalary SmithJohn335$280 DoeJane128$325 BrownScott341$265 HowardShemp448$359 TaylorTom222$250

12 Searches Keywords Boolean operator functions (p. 72) (http://www.automation-drive.com/what-is-boolean)

13 Scholarly Sources Communication Journals (p. 60) Google Google Scholar Google Alerts Search Engine Optimization (SEO) (http://lunaticadesnuda.blogspot.com/2008/03/gatorate-tiger-tiger- woods-own-gatorade.html)


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