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Organizational Behavior Human Behavior at Work Thirteenth Edition Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Behavior Human Behavior at Work Thirteenth Edition Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Behavior Human Behavior at Work Thirteenth Edition Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

2 Chapter Five Motivation Principles of Greatness You can't send a duck to eagle school

3 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 Chapter Objectives To describe: Models of motivation Job satisfaction and morale Work ethic 5-3

4 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 Introduction Motivation… Takes place within a culture and social system Role Status 5-4

5 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 A Model of Motivation Potential Performance = Ability × Motivation (willingness) EnvironmentOpportunity Needs & Drives TensionEffortPerformanceRewards Goals & incentives Ability Need satisfaction 5-5

6 Where hands-up in class is banned A. B+. B-. C. F. What did you get? "The first thing pupils do is look at their score. Do you know what the second thing is? Look at what the others got. Any feedback from the teacher is ignored," says Professor Wiliam. "As soon as you grade them, learning stops." So in his experimental classroom, projects were returned with no grades, just feedback. In an art lesson, for instance, pupils made gecko sculptures and were given written feedback on how to improve on their creation. Only once it had been reworked did their gecko get graded. "They didn't like it. Pupils are like drug addicts, they're addicted to grades and we've got them hooked. They expect grades. Parents expect grades." Lane, Megan Where hands up in class is banned” BBC News ONLINE 7 September 2010 Accessed >/www.bbc.co.uk/news/education John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

7 Group Assignment: Motivation Take notes / record the group discussion during this presentation / discussion. These notes will describe how you and your group are motivated. Mention at least three theories (minimum) This Assignment is part of “group process” - LO 3 Upload the notes to your social network site. John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

8 Psychological Contract John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

9 Psychological Contract “What I give and what I expect to get” Discuss: What is the psychological contract between  Students and teachers?  Husbands and wives?  Leaders and team members? What happens if you don’t discuss and agree the psychological contract at the beginning of your relationship? John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

10 direction and focus of behavior positive - a person is dependable, creative, helpful, timely Negative –late, absent, withdraws, low performanc level of effort high does just enough persistence continual high effort gives up, works sometimes Motivation - forces that cause a person to act in certain ways

11 Motivation Forces Discuss, giving examples and evidence to prove your points, for each person in the group:  What is your direction and focus of behavior?  What is your level of effort?  What is your level of persistence? John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

12 McClelland - Motivational DrivesMotivational Drives Achievement Affiliation Power 5-12

13 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 Achievement Motivation Achievers work hard when They will receive personal credit for effort The risk of failure is only moderate They receive feedback about past performance Characteristics of Achievers Take responsibility for actions and results Control their destiny Seek regular feedback Enjoy winning Select assistants who are technically capable Have little regard for personal feelings 5-13

14 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 Affiliation Motivation People with affiliation motives Work better when complimented for favorable attitudes and cooperation Surround themselves with likable people Have trouble assigning challenging tasks, directing activities, monitoring effectiveness May have trouble getting things done 5-14

15 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 Power Motivation A drive to influence people, take control, and change situations Positive or negative organization or personal 5-15

16 What drives you? Use your LSA results to discuss what motivate you.  Achievement  Affiliation  Power John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

17 Managers can Apply the Drives Observe employee behavior to determine how employees respond Identify strongest motivational drive John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

18 Human Needs Basic Physical Needs Includes food, water, sleep, air Universal May vary in strength Secondary Needs Develop as people mature Includes self-esteem, sense of duty, competitiveness, affection, self-assertion Nearly any management action will affect secondary needsmanagement action 5-18

19 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 Human Needs Key conclusions about secondary needs: Strongly conditioned by experience Vary in type and intensity Subject to change across time Work in combination and influence each other Often hidden from conscious recognition Vague feelings, not specific physical needs Influence behavior in powerful ways 5-19

20 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Safety and Security Belonging and Social Esteem and Status Self-Actualization 5-20

21 Where do you fit on Maslow’s hierarchy? Discuss what motivates you John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

22 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Today’s managers must… Identify and accept employee needs Recognize that needs differ among employees Offer satisfaction for currently unmet needs Realize that giving more of the same reward may have diminishing impact on motivation 5-22

23 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model Motivational Factors Work itself, achievement, possibility of growth Advancement, recognition Maintenance Factors Working conditions, pay Status Relations with supervisors, peers, subordinates Quality of supervision Company policy and administration Job security 5-23

24 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model Effects of Maintenance and Motivational Factors (Absence) Maintenance factors (Presence) (Absence) Motivational factors (Presence) High negative feelings Neutral High positive feelings 5-24

25 Hertzberg’s Two Factors Discuss what motivates your group  Maintenance factors  Motivational factors – what are your intrinsic rewards from the work itself John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

26 Behavior modification - Law of Effect A person repeats behavior that has positive results Stops behaviors that have negative results Conditions Consequences must make sense Person must see connection between behavior and consequences 5-26

27 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 Four Consequences of OB Mod Punishment Positive reinforcement Extinction Negative reinforcement Application Withdrawal Manager’s use NegativePositive Nature of consequence 5-27

28 Behavior Modification Discuss how to change your group behavior  Punishment  Positive reinforcement  Negative renforcement John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

29 Locus of Control Look at your LSA results  What is your Locus of Control – internal or external?  Alternately, complete the locus of control scales and discuss your result.locus of control scales John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

30 VROOM - The Expectancy Model Valence × Expectancy × Instrumentality = Motivation  Valence = reward preference from “I don’t care about the reward” to “I prefer to have the reward ”  Expectancy = belief that effort will complete task f rom” I can’t do it” to “I can do it perfectly”  Instrumentality = reward probability from ”I get the reward if I give excellent performance” to “There is no relation between reward and performance” 5-30

31 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 Valence, Expectancy, Instrumentality Valence Expectancy Instrumentality Strong avoidance Indifference Strong preference 0+1 Low probabilityHigh probability 0+1 Low probabilityHigh probability

32 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 Motivation Uncertainty Strengthens the value of the reward Strengthens the connections between effort and performance and performance and reward 5-32

33 Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Discuss your group beliefs about the assessment strategy in this course  Online quizzes – –Expectancy –Instrumentality –Valence  Project –Expectancy –Instrumentality –Valence John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

34 The Equity Model Content and process theories of motivation look at the individual person Equity model compares their rewards (outcomes) with their effort (inputs) People… Observe one another Judge one another Make comparisons Rewards Must seem to be “Fair” 5-34

35 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 Person's Inputs Person's Outcomes payfun at workrewardseducation job difficulty effort Equity Model

36 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 The Equity Model Applied People Have different perceptions Work within several social systems May have multiple reference groups Have shifting standards Have an upward orientation Have personal egos Are subject to equity sensitivity Need to see equal process 5-36

37 Equity Theory Discuss your group beliefs about the equity model  What do you put into the Project, the course  What do you get out of the Project, the course  Is it equitable? Explain? John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

38 Motivational Models All have strengths and weaknesses All add to understanding of motivational process New models mainly cognitive Must be adapted to the situation Blending of many models is useful 5-38

39 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 work is important and a goal in life work ethic “me first” leisure ethic I need relationships connectness a belief that people should receive benefits without having to work "I am Emirati so I should get " "the government will do it for me " entitlement being in the right place at the right time leads to instant wealth luck Social Values and work ethic

40 Job satisfaction Attitude: Feelings and beliefs that affect  how people see their environment  how people commit to action  how people decide to behave Job satisfaction:  feelings and emotions with which people view work or studies John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

41 Job Satisfaction Activity A. Working individually, rate, on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high) the following: 1. Overall satisfaction with the course 2. Feeling of involvement with the educational process 3. Commitment to the college 4. Rate your overall program (not one course). 5. Then, do the same thing for your team. B. Discuss the results. What are the overall reasons for the level of satisfaction, involvement and commitment in the class? John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

42 Group Assignment: Motivation You have evidence of discussion on the following: Psychological contract Forces Drives Maslow Hertzberg Behavior Modification Locus of Control Expectancy theory Equity Theory Job satisfaction, Work ethic Upload to your social network site – LO 3 Motivation - group processes John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011


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