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Organizational Behavior Human Behavior at Work Thirteenth Edition

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1 Organizational Behavior Human Behavior at Work Thirteenth Edition
John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Principles of Greatness
Chapter Five You can't send a duck to eagle school Motivation Principles of Greatness John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

3 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
Chapter Objectives To describe: Models of motivation Job satisfaction and morale Work ethic 5-3 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

4 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
Introduction Motivation… Takes place within a culture and social system Role Status 5-4 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

5 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
A Model of Motivation Potential Performance = Ability × Motivation (willingness) Environment Opportunity Needs & Drives Tension Effort Performance Rewards Goals & incentives Ability Need satisfaction 5-5 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

6 Where hands-up in class is banned
A. B+. B-. C. F. What did you get? "The first thing pupils do is look at their score. Do you know what the second thing is? Look at what the others got. Any feedback from the teacher is ignored," says Professor Wiliam. "As soon as you grade them, learning stops." So in his experimental classroom, projects were returned with no grades, just feedback. In an art lesson, for instance, pupils made gecko sculptures and were given written feedback on how to improve on their creation. Only once it had been reworked did their gecko get graded. "They didn't like it. Pupils are like drug addicts, they're addicted to grades and we've got them hooked. They expect grades. Parents expect grades." Lane, Megan Where hands up in class is banned” BBC News ONLINE 7 September Accessed <<http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education >> John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

7 Group Assignment: Motivation
Take notes / record the group discussion during this presentation / discussion. These notes will describe how you and your group are motivated. Mention at least three theories (minimum) This Assignment is part of “group process” - LO 3 Upload the notes to your social network site. John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

8 Psychological Contract
John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

9 Psychological Contract
“What I give and what I expect to get” Discuss: What is the psychological contract between Students and teachers? Husbands and wives? Leaders and team members? What happens if you don’t discuss and agree the psychological contract at the beginning of your relationship? John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

10 direction and focus of behavior level of effort persistence
Motivation - forces that cause a person to act in certain ways direction and focus of behavior positive - a person is dependable, creative, helpful, timely Negative –late, absent, withdraws, low performanc level of effort high does just enough persistence continual high effort gives up, works sometimes John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

11 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
Motivation Forces Discuss, giving examples and evidence to prove your points, for each person in the group: What is your direction and focus of behavior? What is your level of effort? What is your level of persistence? John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

12 McClelland - Motivational Drives
Achievement Affiliation Power 5-12 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

13 Achievement Motivation
Achievers work hard when They will receive personal credit for effort The risk of failure is only moderate They receive feedback about past performance Characteristics of Achievers Take responsibility for actions and results Control their destiny Seek regular feedback Enjoy winning Select assistants who are technically capable Have little regard for personal feelings 5-13 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

14 Affiliation Motivation
People with affiliation motives Work better when complimented for favorable attitudes and cooperation Surround themselves with likable people Have trouble assigning challenging tasks, directing activities, monitoring effectiveness May have trouble getting things done 5-14 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

15 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
Power Motivation A drive to influence people, take control, and change situations Positive or negative organization or personal 5-15 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

16 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
What drives you? Use your LSA results to discuss what motivate you. Achievement Affiliation Power John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

17 Managers can Apply the Drives
Observe employee behavior to determine how employees respond Identify strongest motivational drive John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

18 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
Human Needs Basic Physical Needs Includes food, water, sleep, air Universal May vary in strength Secondary Needs Develop as people mature Includes self-esteem, sense of duty, competitiveness, affection, self-assertion Nearly any management action will affect secondary needs 5-18 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

19 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
Human Needs Key conclusions about secondary needs: Strongly conditioned by experience Vary in type and intensity Subject to change across time Work in combination and influence each other Often hidden from conscious recognition Vague feelings, not specific physical needs Influence behavior in powerful ways 5-19 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

20 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Actualization Esteem and Status Belonging and Social Safety and Security Physiological 5-20 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

21 Where do you fit on Maslow’s hierarchy?
Discuss what motivates you John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

22 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Today’s managers must… Identify and accept employee needs Recognize that needs differ among employees Offer satisfaction for currently unmet needs Realize that giving more of the same reward may have diminishing impact on motivation 5-22 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

23 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model
Motivational Factors Work itself, achievement, possibility of growth Advancement, recognition Maintenance Factors Working conditions, pay Status Relations with supervisors, peers, subordinates Quality of supervision Company policy and administration Job security 5-23 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

24 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model
Effects of Maintenance and Motivational Factors High negative feelings High positive feelings Neutral (Absence) Maintenance factors (Presence) (Absence) Motivational factors (Presence) 5-24 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

25 Hertzberg’s Two Factors
Discuss what motivates your group Maintenance factors Motivational factors – what are your intrinsic rewards from the work itself John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

26 Behavior modification - Law of Effect
A person repeats behavior that has positive results Stops behaviors that have negative results Conditions Consequences must make sense Person must see connection between behavior and consequences 5-26 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

27 Four Consequences of OB Mod
Punishment Positive reinforcement Application Manager’s use Negative reinforcement Extinction Withdrawal Negative Positive Nature of consequence 5-27 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

28 Behavior Modification
Discuss how to change your group behavior Punishment Positive reinforcement Negative renforcement John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

29 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
Locus of Control Look at your LSA results What is your Locus of Control – internal or external? Alternately, complete the locus of control scales and discuss your result. John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

30 VROOM - The Expectancy Model
Valence × Expectancy × Instrumentality = Motivation Valence = reward preference from “I don’t care about the reward” to “I prefer to have the reward” Expectancy = belief that effort will complete task from” I can’t do it” to “I can do it perfectly” Instrumentality = reward probability from ”I get the reward if I give excellent performance” to “There is no relation between reward and performance” 5-30 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

31 Valence, Expectancy, Instrumentality
Strong preference Strong avoidance Indifference Valence -1 +1 Low probability High probability Expectancy +1 Low probability High probability Instrumentality +1 5-31 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

32 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
Motivation Uncertainty Strengthens the value of the reward Strengthens the connections between effort and performance and performance and reward 5-32 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

33 Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
Discuss your group beliefs about the assessment strategy in this course Online quizzes – Expectancy Instrumentality Valence Project John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

34 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
The Equity Model Content and process theories of motivation look at the individual person Equity model compares their rewards (outcomes) with their effort (inputs) People… Observe one another Judge one another Make comparisons Rewards Must seem to be “Fair” Where hands-up in class is banned By Megan Lane BBC News Magazine A. B+. B-. C. F. What did you get? "The first thing pupils do is look at their score. Do you know what the second thing is? Look at what the others got. Any feedback from the teacher is ignored," says Professor Wiliam. "As soon as you grade them, learning stops." So in his experimental classroom, projects were returned with no grades, just feedback. In an art lesson, for instance, pupils made gecko sculptures and were given written feedback on how to improve on their creation. Only once it had been reworked did their gecko get graded. "They didn't like it. Pupils are like drug addicts, they're addicted to grades and we've got them hooked. They expect grades. Parents expect grades." Lane, Megan Where hands up in class is banned” BBC News ONLINE 7 September Accessed <<http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education >> 5-34 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

35 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
Equity Model Person's Inputs education job difficulty effort Person's Outcomes pay fun at work rewards John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

36 The Equity Model Applied
People Have different perceptions Work within several social systems May have multiple reference groups Have shifting standards Have an upward orientation Have personal egos Are subject to equity sensitivity Need to see equal process 5-36 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

37 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
Equity Theory Discuss your group beliefs about the equity model What do you put into the Project, the course What do you get out of the Project, the course Is it equitable? Explain? John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

38 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
Motivational Models All have strengths and weaknesses All add to understanding of motivational process New models mainly cognitive Must be adapted to the situation Blending of many models is useful 5-38 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

39 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
Social Values and work ethic work ethic work is important and a goal in life leisure ethic “me first” connectness I need relationships entitlement a belief that people should receive benefits without having to work "I am Emirati so I should get " "the government will do it for me" luck being in the right place at the right time leads to instant wealth John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

40 John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011
Job satisfaction Attitude: Feelings and beliefs that affect how people see their environment how people commit to action how people decide to behave Job satisfaction: feelings and emotions with which people view work or studies John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

41 Job Satisfaction Activity
A. Working individually, rate, on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high) the following: 1. Overall satisfaction with the course 2. Feeling of involvement with the educational process 3. Commitment to the college 4. Rate your overall program (not one course). 5. Then, do the same thing for your team. B. Discuss the results. What are the overall reasons for the level of satisfaction, involvement and commitment in the class? John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011

42 Group Assignment: Motivation
You have evidence of discussion on the following: Psychological contract Forces Drives Maslow Hertzberg Behavior Modification Locus of Control Expectancy theory Equity Theory Job satisfaction, Work ethic Upload to your social network site – LO 3 Motivation - group processes John Newstrom Organizational Behavior 13th edition mcc 2011


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