2Introduction 9000 km from East to West and 5000 from North to South Ural mountains divide Russia into a European and Asian partPopulation of about 143 million (3/4 live in the European part)Moscow is the capital and the largest cityRussian is official language but many others in component partsPresident is Dmitry MedvedevTell the points of the introduction and add some more information to it.European/Asian part: Russia has its roots in the European part of Russia. Most of the people live there.Second largest city is St. PetersburgBecause of its huge size there is not only one language but many more, especially next to the many territorial bordersPutin is the most powerful person in Russia
4According to the Constitution of Russia, oblasts are considered to be subjects of the Federation, which is a higher status than that of administrative units they had within the Russian SFSR before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The federal subject status gives the oblasts some degree of autonomy and gives them representation in the Federation Council.
5Area: 17,025,200 square km. Around twice the size of the U.S. Climate: ranging from sub-arctic in Siberia to humid in much of European Russia.Terrain: Low hills, steppe, forest, arctic tundra, mountains….Despite its size, much of the country is either too cold or the soil is too dry for agriculture.
6In the beginning……First came the Slavs who settled along the rivers of Southern Russia and the Ukraine in the 6th Century.
7The VikingsThen came the Vikings who in the 9th century established the large and powerful state of ‘Kievan Russia.’
8Kievan Russia Free peasant farmers City dwellers Small ruling class of nobles & princessome slavesTraded with the Byzantine Empire from whichRussians learnt : skills, culture & religion – Orthodox Christianity.988 AD it became the official religion.
9The MongolsThen came the Mongols….In 1236 a vast Mongol horde successfully invaded the Russian city states. For the next 240 years, the Russians were forced to pay tribute to the Mongol khans.
10Moscow’s rise to powerMoscow grew in power as the chief tax collector for the Mongols.In the 14th Century, Moscow’s Grand Prince led several other cities in a battle to overthrow the Mongols.They were successful and this marks the beginning of a united Russia.
11Ivan the Terrible (1533-84): Russia’s first tsar Mother was poisoned when he was 7yrs old. Ivan developed a dangerous paranoia.Would throw live animals from the palace towers for fun.After his wife, Anastasia died, Ivan developed a really nasty streak – sentenced thousands to death, would give detailed instructions on how to torture victims so as to ‘recreate hell’.Killed his own son in a fit of rage. Then came a period of remorse.Became a monk towards the end of his life and prayed for the souls of his victims.
12The Romanov Rulers Peter the Great (1682-1725) Determined to make Russia a modern European state.Just about 2.3m tall.Built a new city on the boggy banks of the River Neva and named it St Petersburg.In 1712 he declared this city the new capital of Russia.
13Catherine the Great (1762-96) Overthrew her feeble husband Peter III (who soon afterwards died ‘in an accident’) and took over the throne with the help of her lover.Russia became even more powerful and prestigious during her reign, gaining more land.Turned St. Petersburg into one of the most impressive European capitals.Story of her death is shrouded in myth and mystery. It definitely did not involve a horse although she may have been on the toilet.
14Last of the RomanovsTsar Alexander II: a ‘great reformer’ although still disliked by others. Abolished serfdom. Ended up being blown up by a bomb.Tsar Alexander III: tall, mean, liked a drink, and drank himself to death.Tsar Nicholas II, last Tsar, he and his family executed in October Revolution, 1917.
15Revolutionary Movements 1800s Mainly from western educated eliteVarious attempts to overthrow tsar failed – severe punishment.1840s & esp. after 1860: most revolutionaries wanted a socialist govt.Economy in hands of the peopleAgainst constitutional democracy1881 Tsar assassinated- no peasantry involvement
161880sIdeas of Karl Marx:No socialist rev. until capitalism had developed, industry built, so that a new class of workers-factory workers =the proletariat became the majority.1890s. Organised small groups of Marxists= Social Democrats1903 national party: Mensheviks, Bolsheviks
17Mensheviks- Russia should follow Western European socialist parties(democratically run party) Bolsheviks (followed tradition of Russian revolutionaries): tightly run & organised group of prof. revs. who would order the proletariat, take charge of rev. Led by Vladimir Ulyanov- Lenin.
181905 Revolution“ Bloody Sunday” Set off by peasants, workers’ strikes, business people & professionals, along with mutinies by the armed forcesSt. Petersburg workers formed a council= “soviet” to run the strikeOct. 30, Tsar Nicholas II relented, est. a parliament Duma, first everBasic civil rights for people & limited powers to the parliamentThen Tsar hunted down the revolutionaries- fled overseas
19Work of Duma Legislation to improve people’s life: Laws to protect factory workersEducation expandedA progamme to improve peasants’ life; free to move & aid to improve farmsBUT TSAR still had a lot of power:1. could appoint & fire all ministers2. Control over foreign policy & military budget
20Powers of the Tsar TSAR still had a lot of power: 1. could appoint & fire all ministers2. Control over foreign policy & military budget3. Veto all legislation & manipulate parliament with other powers he had retainedMost Russians very poor. Time needed for reforms to be completed
211914 WWI Russia suffered , not able to withstand a modern German army Late : > 8 million soldiers killed, wounded, or capturedCivilians could not find basic nec. for survivalMARCH 1917 demos. in Petrograd supported by workers & soldiers
22February 1917 RevolutionStarted with protests about food shortages in St. Petersburg. Russia was doing very badly in World War I. Ended with the Tsar abdicating and the start of a new Russian Parliament.
23Problems Economy Backwardness What direction to take in the future Shortage of FOOD!
24General Institutions of Communist Regime Single Party State SystemDictatorship of the ProletariatCentral Planned EconomyAbolishment of Private Property RightsCollectivisationUniversal Public ProgramsSurveillance SystemStrong Military Unit under Party Control
25Provisional Government Unable to control the armed forcesThwarted by the BolsheviksPetrograd Soviet in chargeLenin decided to overthrow Prov. Govt.Autumn 1917: WWI still going on- unpopularNovember 6-7, 1917 Bolsheviks grabbed power
26Bolshevik Dictatorship: October 1917 RevolutionLenin and the Bolshevik Party seized power after storming the Winter Palace.Bolshevik Dictatorship:LeninTrotskiStalin
27Nov. 8, 1917Land decree- confiscated landlords’ estates & church lands to hand over to peasant committees.Peace neg. with Germany- Treaty of Litovsk: Russia had to cede a lot of territory to Germany & left the Allies (GB, Fr, US) to negotiate on their own with Germany
28After a long and bloody civil war , the Bolsheviks (now the Communist Party) took complete control of Russia, or the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic.They were inspired by the ideas of Karl Marx and claimed that they would establish a state in which power and wealth would be held by the masses and not the few.Cheka: secret police. Arrests & execution w/o trial.One party dictatorship- crushed all opponents, no non-Bolsheviks in govt.
29NEP: New Economic Policy Peasants allowed to sell food onthe open marketMany factories & businessesreturned to private ownershipGovt. controlled :factories, railroads, minesWidespread and rapid economic recoveryFood supplies replenished in 2 years
30Lenin’s LegacySuccessfully overthrew the Tsar Empire, first communist country.Successfully improved Russian economy by adopting New Economic Policy
31A popular joke set-up is Lenin interacting with the head of the secret police, Dzerzhinsky in the Smolny Institute, seat of the revolutionary communist government in Petrograd, or with khodoki, peasants that came to see Lenin.During the famine of the civil war, a delegation of starving peasants comes to the Smolny, wishing to file a petition. "We have even started eating the grass like horses," says one peasant. "Soon we will start neighing like horses!" "Come on! Don't worry!" says Lenin reassuringly. "We are drinking tea with honey here, and we are not buzzing like bees, are we?"
32Lenin had a series of strokes and died in 1924. Lenin’s deathLenin had a series of strokes and died in 1924.In his will, he warned of the dangers of letting power fall into the hands of one particular man…
33Josef Stalin (“Uncle Joe” to the Americans) Born Josef Vissarionovich Djugashvili.During the Revolution he named himself Stalin: “man of steel”.“A loveable rogue” who completely transformed Russian life and was largely responsible for the deaths of millions of Russians.
34Stalin’s purges 1922-1953 400, 000 Social unrest Class struggle Suspected critics or opponents (army officers, revolutionaries, peasants, landowners, intelligentsia) , or anyone that Stalin didn’t like the look of were systematically rounded up and executed.Class struggleSocial unrestRegional conflictsOr, if they were lucky, they were sent to a Siberian labour camp for maybe 10 or 20 years.
35Collective farmingStalin’s policy was to organise farms into collective units which would ‘feed the state’. This turned into a disaster and he was responsible for one of the biggest man-made famines in history.
36Generalissimo Stalin Cult of Personality Stalin stayed in power through a mixture of propaganda, terror, and genuine devotion from some Russians.He attained god-like status particularly after defeating the Nazis in World War II.Cult of Personality
37Made Time Magazine’s Man of the Year in 1942 for holding the Nazis at bay.Although true this showed how little Americans actually knew of Stalin. They thought his methodstough but fair.
38Stalin Joke "Comrade Stalin! This man is your exact double!" "Shoot him!“"Maybe we should shave off his moustache?“"Good idea! Shave it off and then shoot him!".
39Stalin Joke no. 2Stalin reads his report to the Party Congress. Suddenly someone sneezes. "Who sneezed?" (Silence.) "First row! On your feet! Shoot them!" (Applause.) "Who sneezed?" (Silence.) "Second row! On your feet! Shoot them!" (Long, loud applause.) "Who sneezed?" (Silence.) ... A dejected voice in the back: "It was me" (Sobs.) Stalin leans forward: "Bless you, comrade!"
40Nikita KhrushchevAfter his death, Khrushchev, his successor, denounced some of Stalin’s policies at a communist party congress.
41Revisionist Khrushchev 1953-1964 Labeled Stalin as Cult of Personality, began de-Stalinisation *Could not attempt reform without oppositionAs he didn’t have a power base like Stalin
42De-Stalinisation 1954 Released labour camp prisoners 1956-7: closed labour camps, more release of prisonersEased censorships for writers & artistsRaised standard of living by increasing food supply; new housingImproved relations with the West & US, toured 19591955 Withdrew occupation forces from Austria1963 Signed agreement with US banning above ground nuclear testing
43Krushchev (cont.) But in 1961 Berlin Wall built 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
44Krushchev (cont.) Space Race: 1957 Sputnik I, first artificial satellitefirst man to orbit Earthfirst man to spacewalkfirst woman in spacefirst rocket to hit the moon
46Krushchev’s failures & the end of reforms 1. impatience2. commitment to Soviet’s policies, eg, collectivisation3. failures in F.P. (Foreign Policy)4. Opposition from those who would lose their positions if K. continued his reforms. (1962- K. wanted to reorganise the C.P. but many opposed this.)
47Krushchev (cont.) He failed to reform Stalin’s institutions Left economy tightly controlled by the govt. & inefficientSecret police was still part of daily life, KGBThese problems would be left unaddressed for 2 decades.
48Why was Khrushchev deseated Why was Khrushchev deseated? — Because of the Seven "C"s: Cult of personality, Communism, China, Cuban Crisis, Corn, and Cuzka's motherIn Russian this is the seven "K"s. To "show somebody Kuzka's mother" is a Russian idiom meaning "to give somebody a hard time". Khrushchev had used this phrase during a speech at the United Nations General Assembly referring to the Tsar Bomba test over Novaya Zemlya.
50Technocrat BrezhnevThe “happiest time” for Russians in the 20th century.Russia peaked its highest status in international game.Lack of reforms also symbolised this decade. It seeds the decline of the Empire.Brezhnev Doctrine: labeled the revival of Soviet Power and its hostility toward the international society (and its own decline)
51Brezhnev Clamp down on intellectuals Raised std. of living Strengthened USSR’s security by catching up with US in arms race, & reduced tension with US. Mid-1970s relations with US good.Reforms failed as party élite were left untouched
52Brezhnev 1979 Relations with US down, arms build up . Invasion of AfghanistanDissidentsEconomy stalledBrezhnev died Nov. 1982
53http://www. cah. utexas. edu/photojournalism/detail. php Photograph by: Wally McNamee, 1973Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev eyes actress Jill St. John at a poolside reception hosted by President Nixon in California.
57One of the greatest kisses in History is the one that took place between communist leaders Erich Honneker from East Germany, and Brezhnev from Soviet Union, during the 30th Anniversary of the GDR in June Despite the controversy and ridicule arisen in the West, this was actually a common sign of socialist solidarity, very used since Khrushchev era. It seems, moreover, that both leaders were very keen on kissing.
59"What is the main difference of succession under tsarist regime and under socialism?" "Under tsarist regime the power transferred from father to a son, and under socialism - from one grandfather to another." (A wordplay: 'grandfather' in Russian is traditionally used in a sense of 'old man')
61The final 50 years in a nutshell Russia remained part of a huge ‘Communist empire’ ruling large parts of Eastern Europe during the cold war.By the late 1980’s the cracks were beginning to show and in 1991 the Communist system collapsed, bringing in a new era of capitalism to Russia.