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Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process.  Wang & Ross (2007) Culture is both a 1)system and 2)a process. System: values, schemas,

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Presentation on theme: "Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process.  Wang & Ross (2007) Culture is both a 1)system and 2)a process. System: values, schemas,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process.  Wang & Ross (2007) Culture is both a 1)system and 2)a process. System: values, schemas, models, artifacts Process: rituals, daily routines, and practices  When cross-cultural research is done with Westerners & non-Westerners they often use lab experiments (ie, recall of unrelated words). The Westerners tend to do better. Perhaps this is so because many non-Westerners see these tasks as meaningless. Cultural and methodological considerations in cross-cultural research on memory

2 Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process. Bartlett (1932): claims that cultural & social demands can explain the extraordinary ability of Swazi herdsmen to recall individual characteristics of their cattle. Misty & Rogoff (1994): argue that culture & memory are enmeshed skills. Remembering is an activity, which is determined by the demands of the social and cultural context in which it takes place. Remembering may be a means of achieving an important social or cultural goal. Cultural & social demands determine memory

3 Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process.  Look at Cole & Scribner (1974)  What are the independent and dependent variables?  Evaluate the study. What are some potential issues with the experiment? The extent to which it is culture or schooling (or both) that influenced memory and categorziation in the study is not entirely clear. The experimental method was used and it can help establish a cause-effect relationship, but since the independent variable was culture (or schooling) it may be difficult to say anything definite about cause-effect relationships.

4 Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process.  The implication of many cross-cultural memory studies is that, although the ability to remember is universal (hardware), specific forms of remembering (software) are not universal, but rather context-bound.  A methodological problem exists as most memory research is conducted in cultures with formal schooling systems. This makes it difficult to generalize findings to cultures with no formal schooling. Culture and Memory Summing up

5 Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process.  Rogoff & Waddel (1982) Other memory studies with culture


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