2 8.1.3 Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a mitochondrion as seen in electron micrographsMatrix:Watery substance that contains ribosomes and many enzymes.These enzymes are vital for the link reaction and the Krebs cycle. Inner membrane:The electron transport chain and ATP synthase are found in this membrane.These are vital for oxidative phosphorylation.
3 Space between inner and outer membranes: 8.1.3 Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a mitochondrion as seen in electron micrographsSpace between inner and outer membranes:Small volume into which protons are pumped into.Small volume high concentration gradient can be reached very quickly.This is vital for chemiosmosis. Outer membrane:Separates the contents of the mitochondrion from the rest of the cell.Creates a good environment for cell respiration.
4 8.1.3 Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a mitochondrion as seen in electron micrographsCristae:Tubular projections of the inner membraneIncrease the surface area for oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial DNAEncode mitochondrial enzymes.RibosomesTranslation of mitochondrial proteins.
5 8.1.6 Explain the relationship between the structure of the mitochondrion and its function A. Matrixsite for Krebs' cyclelink reactionATP synthesisB. Inner Membranesite of oxidative phosphorylatione– transport chainincrease surface areaATP synthesis;C. Inner Membrane SpaceH+ / proton build up;
6 8.1.3 Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a mitochondrion as seen in electron micrographsCABA: MatrixB: Inner membraneC: Intermembrane spaceC
7 Occurs in ________________ Is not ___________ dependent 8.1.2 Outline the process of glycolysis, including phosphorylation, lysis, oxidation and ATP formation.Occurs in ________________Is not ___________ dependentGlucose is Phosphorylated (-__ ATP)Lysis: phosphorylated 6-carbon sugar is broken down into __ ____________Glucose is ______________________ phosphorylation produces 2 ATPNET synthesis of ___ ATP and ___ NADH
8 Glycolysis Overview Major phases Energy investment Lysis Energy harvesting
9 Summary of glycolysis: Each molecule of glucose is broken down to two molecules of pyruvateA net of two ATP molecules and two NADH (high-energy electron carriers) are formed
10 Energy Investment Phase Glucose is phosphorylated twiceRequires the INVESTMENT of two ATP molecules
11 LysisThe phosphorylated glucose is broken into two triose-phosphate molecules (called G3P)
12 Energy harvesting phase In a series of reactions, each molecule is converted into a pyruvate, generating two ATPs per conversion, for a total of four ATPs
13 Energy harvesting phase each G3P has an inorganic phosphate group added (Pi).Simultaneously, NAD+ gains H and 2e- to become NADHG3PPiNAD+RemovesH+ and 2 e-to becomeNADHPiPi
14 8.1.2 Outline the process of glycolysis, including phosphorylation, lysis, oxidation and ATP formation.Step 1 - Glucose is phosphorylated. Step 2 - Lysis of hexose (6C) biphosphate into two triose (3C) phosphates Step 3 - Each triose (3C) phosphate molecule is oxidized. Step 4 – Two pyruvate molecules (3C) are formed by removing two phosphate groups from each molecule. Type of phosphorylation?
16 In the absence of oxygen Fermentation enables some cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygenCellular respirationRelies on oxygen to produce ATPIn the absence of oxygenCells can still produce ATP through fermentation
17 Fermentation (anaerobic) From glycolysis Does not produce more ATP, but is necessary to regenerate NAD+, which must be available for glycolysis to continueHuman muscles cellsBacteriaYeast
19 FIGURE 8-3b Fermentation (b) Bread rises as CO2 is liberated by fermenting yeast, which converts glucose to ethanol. The dough on the left rose to the level on the right in a few hours.
20 Fermentation consists of Glycolysis plus reactions that regenerate NAD+, which can be reused by glycolysisIn alcohol fermentationPyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps, one of which releases CO2During lactic acid fermentationPyruvate is reduced directly to NADH to form lactate as a waste product
21 8.1.4 Explain aerobic respiration, including the link reaction, the Krebs cycle, the role of NADH + H+, the electron transport chain and the role of oxygen
31 FIGURE 8-8 The electron transport chain of mitochondria NADH and FADH2 donate their energetic electrons to the carriers of the transport chain. As the electrons pass through the transport chain, some of their energy is used to pump hydrogen ions from the matrix into the intermembrane space. This creates a hydrogen ion gradient that is used to drive ATP synthesis. At the end of the electron transport chain, the energy-depleted electrons combine with oxygen and hydrogen ions in the matrix to form water.
34 FIGURE 8-10 Energy harvest from the breakdown of glucose Why do we say that glucose breakdown releases "36 or 38 ATP molecules," rather than one specific number? Glycolysis produces two NADH molecules in the cytosol. The electrons from these two NADH molecules must be transported into the matrix before they can enter the electron transport chain. In most eukaryotic cells, the energy of one ATP molecule is used to transport the electrons from each NADH molecule into the matrix. Thus, the two "glycolytic NADH" molecules net only two ATPs, not the usual three, during electron transport. The heart and liver cells of mammals, however, use a different transport mechanism, one that does not consume ATP to transport electrons. In these cells, the two NADH molecules produced during glycolysis net three ATPs each, just as the "mitochondrial NADH" molecules do.
36 Keeping Score ATP NADH FADH2 CO2 Gly 2 2 0 0 Link 0 2 0 2 KrebsTotals
37 Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids can be used as energy sources; metabolites involved in energy production can be used to synthesize carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and cellular structures.