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If You See: Neolithic Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "If You See: Neolithic Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 If You See: Neolithic Revolution
Think of: End of the last “Ice Age” People began to settle = Civilizations developed- Major river valleys - Huang He, the Indus, and the Nile civilizations


3 If You See: Brahma, dharma, and Moksha
Think Of: Hinduism

4 This is a picture of Hagia Sophia
This is a picture of Hagia Sophia. If you were to see a picture like this – think of the Byzantine Empire &/or Russia (Cyrillic alphabet).

5 The economic wealth of Calicut, Mogadishu, and Venice in the 13th century was primarily dependent on their? If you were to see a similar question like the one above… you should automatically ponder what do these three things have in common… THINK! Well? They are grand coastal cities: coastal locations. Follow the same pattern for similar lining of questions… If there’s a question asking what do these three/four things have in common, find out what you know about at least ONE of them…. More times than not, that will eventually lead you to the correct answer… please trust me on this.

6 If you see… Black Death You should automatically think of: - Mass deaths  A shortage of workers developed. -This originated from European trading and traveling to the east (China), where the Bubonic Plaque/Black Death began. - While the plague led to the Death of over 1/3 of Europe’s population, the Crusades, the trade and travel that stemmed from it played a huge role in ending feudalism (land based economic system).

7 If you see… The Prince, Niccolò Machiavelli
Think of the: - The rise of prince’s/king’s political power. - Wrote his work during the Renaissance era. - Two most famous quotes: + “It’s better to be feared than to be loved.” + “The ends justifies the means.”

8 Why were Peter I (the Great) Catherine I (the Great) similar
Think in the sense that both: - Pursued a policy of westernization and expansion. - Sought after warm water ports (Since most of Russia is oft-cold/frozen, this was huge – for trade & trade = “life blood” of a given nation. - Promoted the arts and sciences – anything that advance their nation.

9 What were the primary causes of WWI/The Great War?
Think of: M.A.I.N. Causes – Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism

10 If you see The Real “Boxers”… think of: spheres of influence established in China by foreigners (Always carefully examine the information provided). Just remember: if you see the Boxer Rebellion, think of Chinese citizens being anti-western/anti-foreigner… China for Chinee. If you see The Real “Boxers”… think of: spheres of influence established in China by foreigners (Always carefully examine the information provided). Just remember: if you see the Boxer Rebellion, think of Chinese citizens being anti-western/anti-foreigner… China for Chinese.

11 The leaders in this 1936 cartoon are depicted as “spineless” because they? Wished to follow the policy of appeasement = avoid war at all cost.

12 Based on the information in this chart, which situation gave rise to Nazi power in Germany?

13 If you see: Which factor aided Russian troops in defeating Napoleon’s armies and Soviet forces in defeating Hitler’s armies? - Severe winters + tundra = frozen desert - Scorched Earth Policy - Though terrain/geography

14 Based on this cartoon by Leslie Gilbert Illingworth, what role did “Old Man Winter” play in the defense of Russia? (always pay close attention to political cartoon – Review everything). Old Man Winter

15 What is the best title for this map?
Think of Japanese imperialism (for resources) – The Rape of Nanking (Human Rights violations)

16 What does this painting illustrates. What’s the message
What does this painting illustrates? What’s the message? Think of a land based economic/political system: Feudalism… Think of the Middle Ages/Medieval Era.

17 If you see… One way in which Toussaint L’Ouverture, Kwame Nkrumah, and Ho Chi Minh are similar is that each leader Think of: - Each fought to free their his country from European control. - Nationalism/Self-determination.

18 If you see The Nuremberg laws…
Think of: - anti-Semitic (Against Jews) laws of 20th- century Germany. - Rise of Nazism & Adolf Hitler. - These laws used Jews as scapegoats.

19 If you see… Karl Marx Think of: - Father of Communism - He was born in Germany, but conducted most of his writing in England. - Spoke about a Communist Revolution: Bourgeoisie (Rich/Upper Middle Classes) vs. Proletariat (Working Class/Poor) - Conducted his work in the era of the industrial Revolution, spoke out against mistreatment of workers – underpaid/ deplorable working conditions.

20 What’s the main point of this cartoon
What’s the main point of this cartoon? While it’s not visible here, the political cartoon shows that the car’s bumper is titled, “corn powered” and the license plate reads “bio-fuel.” Through this cartoon, we learn that: using corn to make bio-fuels for automobiles will increase food shortages = increases famine/mass deaths.

21 If You See: Great Wall of China
Think Of: Protect the Chinese from the nomadic tribes of northern and central Asia = the huns, tartars, Mongols, etc.

22 If You See: Renaissance
Think of: Rebirth of the Classical Age – time of the ancient Greeks & Romans. Bring back the arts, sciences, literature, etc = Their Golden Age End of the Middle/ Dark Ages = Death/Dangerous.

23 The Phoenicians - “Carriers of civilization” = Cultural diffusion.
Traded goods and spread ideas throughout the Mediterranean region = sea people. Phonics = alphabet

24 Carefully drawn calligraphy, Zen gardens, and the tea ceremony
Think Of: Early Japanese Culture/way of life. Focused on traditionalism/impact of isolation, fear of Europe/foreign interaction.

25 If You See: Mansa Musa (originated from Mali)
Think Of: Famous Hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca = holy land of all Muslims. Trade and travel – crossing the Sahara/N. Africa. Connected to Salt for Gold Trade.


27 If You See: Reformation
Think Of: Martin Luther & his 95 Theses Printing Press – helped spread the word Weakened the Catholic Church W/the start of several other Christian Churches. Protesting the ills/wrongs of Catholic church.

28 If You See: Crusades Think Of: Fight for the Holy Land (Palestine/M.E) – Christians vs. Muslims. Cultural Diffusion – interest in each others’ cultures. European interest in the Asian goods/products.

29 Encounter, Triangular Trade, Middle Passage, Encomienda, Columbian Exchange, etc.
Think Of: Slavery, Colonialism/Imperialism, exploitation, mass death of the natives and African populations/lands in the so- called, “New World.”


31 Zheng He (Chinese) & Ibn Battuta (N. Africa/Muslim)
Think Of: Trading/Traveling to many distance lands Cultural diffusion Advanced navigation systems.


33 Scientific Revolution or the Enlightenment
Think Of: Emphasis on the value of human reasoning Break from the Middle/Dark Ages Using science and logic to reach at everyday decisions.

34 If You See: Simón Bolívar
Think Of: The George Washington of Latin America The Great Liberator – working/fighting for self- rule/independence from European colonialism/imperialism.

35 If You See: Industrial Revolution
Think Of: Factory production Exploitation of workers – women & children Vast pollution Desire/need for an abundance of nat. resources.

36 If You See: Meiji Restoration
Think Of: Modernization/Industrialization of Japan Last Samurai – remember that movie. Break from the past/traditionalism – Tokugawa Shoguns.

37 Meiji Restoration = Westernization/Modernization of Japan

38 If You See: 1938 Munich Conference
Appeasement – one of the major causes of WWII. Helped to make Germany/Nazis stronger Impact of the Great Depression.

39 Mikhail Gorbachev, Glassnost, and Perestroika
Think Of: End of the Cold War – Early 1990s. New freedoms – more democratic Moving away from Communism.

40 If You See: Bolshevik Revolution
Think Of: Birth of Communism/Reds in Russia = U.S.S.R. Got rid of all western/capitalist/democratic policies The rise of Lenin (N.E.P) and then Stalin (failed 5-Year Plans).

41 If You See: Confucianism
Think Of: Filial Piety Kids must honor/respect parents, elders, the dead, and gov’t authority. The 5 relationships & Social Order

42 If You See: The Treaty of Versailles
Think Of: The “War Guilt Clause” – Blame Germany for causing the WWI – and played a major role in A. Hitler and Nazis’ rise to power. Reparations

43 Geographic characteristic shared by both Greece and Japan
Think Of: Archipelago – group, row, or chain of island Irregular coastline = perfect for shipping/trading Lacked arable land & natural resources – Conquest of other lands for what was lacking.

44 Think Of: Protestant Reformation throughout Europe
Martin Luther (95 Theses), John Calvin (new bible), and Henry VIII (6 wives/new religion = Anglicanism) Think Of: Protestant Reformation throughout Europe Weakened the power/authority of the Catholic church Creation of several different Christian sects.

45 If You See: Marco Polo Think of: Interest in Asian cultures increased
Later lead to colonialism/imperialism of Asia = resources, labor force, and rich/strategic land.

46 Does away with many trade obstacles, i.e. tariffs.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 1994 or the European Union (EU) post WWII Think Of: Trade unions Interdependence – working together for economic and political unity - reduce trade barriers between member nations Does away with many trade obstacles, i.e. tariffs.

47 Hungarian Revolution in 1956 and the Tiananmen Square demonstrations in 1989?
Think Of: Repressive action was taken to end both protests. Students/citizens protesting against Communist gov’ts stronghold/dictatorial rule. Wanting more freedoms – western style of gov’t.

48 If You See: Laissez- faire economics
Think Of: Free Markets/trade Capitalism Little to no gov’t interaction in business – May the “best” win. America and Western/democratic nations.

49 If You See: Human Rights Violations
Jews – Holocaust/WWII and throughout history Cambodians – Genocide of over 2 million people at the hands of Pol Pot. Rwanda (1994) Hutus killed approximately 1 million Tutsi, while the U.S./U.N. absolutely nothing. Nanking – Genocide and Gendercide by the Japanese. Armenians – Genocide by the Turks Iraq – Kurds were killed in great numbers by S. Hussein

50 If You See: The fight in the Middle East for the Holy land/Palestine = Muslims vs. Jews. Non-stop blood baths year after after.

51 If You See: Silk Roads Think Of: - Trade & Travel: Europe/Middle East to China/Asia (vice versa): Exchange of goods/products. - Cultural Diffusion/New ideas.

52 Think Of: European: Spanish & Portuguese rule Colonialism in the Americas/Latin America Who’s at the top? Peninsulares = Europeans from the Iberian Peninsula = Portugal & Spain. Who’s at the bottom? Africans/Natives = slaves

53 If You See: Zionism Homeland – for whom? The Jews.
Connected to the Balfour Declaration = agreement with the British gov’t for a homeland in Palestine. Key in the creation of Israel. If you want to understand the conflict in the Middle East, one needs to understand Zionism.

54 If You See: Karl Marx A German political Philosopher – Spent most of his adult life in England; enjoyed more political freedoms there. Wrote the Communist Manifesto alongside Frederick Engels “Father” of modern Communism Predicted a revolution of the proletariats vs. bourgeoisie would occur first in industrial Europe Wrote during the Industrial Rev. = Mid. 1800s.

55 If You See: Chernobyl Think Of: Major “man-made” disaster = destruction/mass deaths. Nuclear explosion Connect it to modern-day Japan – think back to what happened a few months ago.

56 If You See: Iran’s Ayatollah Khomeini and Afghanistan’s Taliban
Established an Islamic/theocratic state Strict laws/customs. Anti-west/democracy Persepolis – You guys read it with Miyo – Hip, Hip Hooray for Miyo!

57 Reign of Terror during the French Revolution
Mass deaths Used violent methods to eliminate their opponents One year of chopping people’s heads off with a guillotine. I.e., Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI

58 Process of German unification/Nationalism
Bismarck was the “orchestrator” “Blood & Iron” – his famous speech

59 The Panama Canal and Suez Canal
Shortened shipping routes between major bodies of water Helped trade and travel Save $$ & time.

60 Chronological Order Roman Empire → Middle Ages → Crusades
Renaissance →European exploration of the Americas → Reformation World War I →Treaty of Versailles → World War II →Korean War

61 If You See: Constantinople & Byzantine Empire
Think Of: Location made it the crossroads of Europe and Asia = Bosporus Sea – Helped to spread cultural diffusion. Part of Eastern Rome – South of Russia. Spread Christianity – Eastern Orthodoxy

62 Sepoy (Indian) or Boxer (Chinese)Rebellions
Think of: British/Western imperialism of Asia. The natives attempted to end the ruled, but failed in their attempts and only made matters worst.

63 Birth of the Industrial Revolution

64 Industrial Era

65 If You See: John Locke Think of: Protect the natural rights of individuals. Speak about freedoms. Gov’t for and by the people.

66 If You See: Triple Alliance & the Triple Entente
Think of: One of the major causes of Great War/WWI. Helped to increased tensions between European countries.

67 If You See: Berlin Conference
Think of: Conquest and division of the so-called, “Dark Continent” = Africa at the hands of Europeans. When? Industrial Rev. 1800s Imperialism/colonialism – all in the name of resources, labor force and land White Man’s Burden

68 Social Darwinists Stronger groups have the right to rule and control weaker groups Applying Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution to everyday life/society.

69 Major dispute between India and Pakistan
Muslims vs. Hindus

70 India vs. Pakistan – Nuclear threats against one another

71 Augusto Pinochet, Saddam Hussein, and Slobodan Milosevic
Oppressive regimes Autocratic rule Mass deaths/purges/ethnic violence = genocide

72 Human Rights Violations

73 Toussaint L’Ouverture
Nationalism/Freedom from the French The great Haitian liberator Helped Haiti gained its independence Haiti became the first “Black” nation in the western hemisphere.

74 F. W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela received the Nobel Peace Prize for their work to end the
- Discriminatory policy of apartheid - Fought for more democratic form of government in S. Africa. - Shortly after this, Mandela became the first black South African president.

75 - Introduced Communism to Chinese.
Mao Zedong - Introduced Communism to Chinese. - Helped write the “Little Red Book” = symbol of Comminism in China. - He was the Chinese leader most closely associated with leading the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution.

76 If you see…Deng Xiaoping… Think of: Modernization, Westernization, growth of Capitalism within China… The cartoon focuses on the fact that economic freedom in China has not led to political reforms & freedom.


78 The statements below refer to changes in Afghanistan in the 1990’s
The statements below refer to changes in Afghanistan in the 1990’s. • The Taliban controls the government. • Women must clothe themselves from head to toe. • Men are required to grow beards. • Girls are not allowed to attend school. These changes in Afghanistan have resulted Islamic fundamentalism

79 The Columbian Exchange = New World (The Americas) meets Old World (Europe). Focuses on Cultural diffusion.

80 The cartoon shows the League of Nations hopes to use boycotts to end war = the league is weak  one of the primary causes of WWII.

81 Rejection of the czarist system in Russia/U.S.S.R.
Rejection of Christianity/Religion & Capitalism Impact of the Bolshevik Revolution = Intro to Communism

82 Agricultural advancement of the Incas
Settled around Peru = mountainous area Not good for crops/cultivation = limited space/arable When you think of the Incas, think of Manhattan. Very small island, but millions reside there and many more visit/conduct business there. How? Tall buildings = do a lot with very little For the Incas =Terracing of mountains for farming

83 Louis XIV and Peter the Great
Absolute ruler = The monarch is all mighty/all powerful Power corrupts… absolute power corrupts absolutely. Used religion = Divine Right of Kings “Do not question government authority” = Autocratic gov’t Centralized gov’t

84 Pax Romana & Pax Mongolia
Pax = means peace in Latin Political/social stability Often leads to a Golden Age = the best of times.

85 Mauryan/Gupta Empires
Ancient Indian Empires Development of math and science. Use of Sanskrit language and development of the concept of zero The Pillars of Emperor Asoka of the Mauryan Empire

86 Water = life All early civilizations developed close to/around major river systems/valleys/waterways. Egypt = The Nile, Mesopotamia = Euphrates & Tigris, China = Huang/Yellow River, India= Indus & Ganges Rivers

87 Byzantine (Eastern Rome)
Introduced the Cyrillic alphabet, Orthodox Christianity, and domed architecture to Russian culture Hagia Sophia = Great temple

88 Golden Age in Spain Cervantes’ literary classic Don Quixote, the rule of Isabella and Ferdinand, and the art of El Greco

89 Russia Frigid region Seeking access to warm water ports.
Largest landmass in the world Most of it barren/waste land Tundra = frozen desert

90 Seventeenth-century scholars Galileo Galilei and René Descartes
Contradicted traditional medieval European beliefs Went against the teachings of the Bible/church Fell into lots of trouble with traditional authorities Used scientific/enlightened thinking/logic/methods to come to a conclusion.

91 “The powder keg of Europe” prior to World War I
The Balkans Peninsula – west of Italy. Find Italy on a map (the old lady’s boot) and then look east for a peninsula (body of water on three sides of the land/region). One of the major causes of the Great War/WWI. Too Many: cultures/religions, races, etc., = constant fight for nationalism/self- determination.

92 Causes of WWII

93 Masters, apprentices, and journeymen
Guild system of Europe in the Middle Ages Form of a union Training people to be professionals in a time where schools/organized education was all but none existent.

94 Shows the importance of Constantinople

95 Twelve Tables Ancient Roman Laws & Customs
Helped to govern the citizens of Rome.

96 If You See: Five Year Plan
Think of: Joseph Stalin’s plan for Russia’s economic growth. All but the first one failed. Led to mass starvation – famine = mass deaths. Focused on economic progress/growth (especially in terms of industry).

97 If You See: Mohandas Gandhi
Think of: India’s leader in the movement for independence from Great Britain Method: Civil Disobedience – non- violence. British trained lawyer – he was brilliant. Wanted India to remain united as one nation where Hindus & Muslims worked together as one.

98 Civil disobedience: Boycott all British Products

99 If You See: The United Nations
Think of: Created after WWII. Resolve conflicts between nations peacefully. Prevent another World War or another major conflict. But what happened to: Rwanda? Vietnam?

100 Relates to the failures/ineffectiveness of the U. N
Relates to the failures/ineffectiveness of the U.N. since its creation in stopping Genocide/Human Rights Violations.

101 - Mali & Songhai (Northwest Africa) - Mansa Musa of Mali -
Think in terms of: - Mali & Songhai (Northwest Africa) - Mansa Musa of Mali -

102 Think of: The Scientific Revolution

103 Think of: - Spanish rule in Latin America - Enslavement of the nations - European (Spanish) conquest of the so-called “New World”.

104 One similarity in the actions of Benito Mussolini and Saddam Hussein (and similar dictatorships/totalitarian forms of governments): Think of: - Denied individual rights – ill- treatment of citizens. - Police states = “Big Brother” - Dictatorship

105 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Think of: Establish production quotas to control the price of oil. Several oil producing nations united to control the distribution of oil production across the globe.

106 If You See: Korean or Vietnam Wars
Think of: Impact of the Cold War. Proxy warfare Post- WWII – 1950s – 70s.

107 If You See: Truman Doctrine or Marshall Plan
Think of: Working to prevent the so-called, “Domino Effect.” Strengthen the alliances that had won the war Containment policies

108 Fidel Castro in Cuba & the Sandinistas in Nicaragua
Think of: Communism/followed Marxist principles in Latin American nations throughout the Cold War.

109 World War II left many European nations weak and vulnerable
Think Of: Major turning point– why/how? Many African and Asian colonies united (nationalism) in order to fight for their independence. Many gained independence during the 1950s – 70s.

110 Great Leap Forward & Four Modernizations (China)
Think of: Increase farm & factory output. Growth of industry

111 If You See: Green Revolution
Think of: Green = increase plants/food/production using new methodologies, technologies, science, farming, etc. in poor nations/regions across the globe. Helped to increase agricultural production based on technological advancements. Was intended on curtailing/slowing down the growth of famine/world hunger, etc. In many ways, one can easily argue that while the scientists meant well, long term, this “revolution” created more problems than it did indeed solve. Today, the so-called Green Revolution has helped to create monstrosities like G.M. or Genetically Modified food, which studies have shown have led to health problems, etc. A good documentary to watch on said subject is, Food, Inc.

112 Impact of the Green Revolution

113 If You See: Magna Carta, English of Rights, Glorious Revolution, Habeus Corpus, Petition of Rights, etc. (all connected to England/Britain) Think of: Limited the power of the monarchy More power to Parliament/the people = more democratic form of government. Away from absolute rule.

114 The purpose of both the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan was to
Think of: - Think of post-WWII era – war torn Europe. - This was the focus on the US’ new foreign policy of Containment: Prevent the spread of communism. - Cold War Era: Capitalism vs. Communism. - The U.S doled out (gave) several BILLION $$/aid to various European nations in the hope of stopping the spread of Communism.

115 If you see the term, Imperialism
Think of: • Treaty of Nanjing gives control of Hong Kong to Great Britain. European conquest of Africa, Asia, & Latin America for Resources to feed the machine – The Industrial Revolution. The White Man’s Burden The 3Cs - Spread of Christianity, Commerce and Conquest. • French government sets up a protectorate in Cambodia. • Italian forces occupy Ethiopia.

116 If you see… Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins
Think of: - The French Revolution - Instituting the Reign of Terror= mass killing of well over 10,000 people. - The Guillotine.

117 If you see… Thomas Malthus, who was truly worried about the rate of increase for human populations in relation to the rate of increase for food production was a problem. Malthus believed that Think of: - Population is growing too fast, and can’t keep up with food production. - Actually believed that wars, famines, natural disasters, etc., are great things in slowing down the rapid rate of population growth. - Famine and war were natural checks on population growth

118 If you see… Turkish leader Kemal Atatürk
Think of: - Modernization/Westernization of Turkey - Secular (non-religious/non-Islamic) form of gov’t. - Post-WWI Era (1920s onward).

119 If you see… Russian Revolution (1917) aka Bolshevik Revolution – Rise of Communism in Russia
Think of: - An incompetent government (led by the CZAR) - Massacres on Bloody Sunday - High costs of World War I


121 Countries in the dark color were once part of the former republics of the Soviet Union

122 Think of… the Neolithic Revolution

123 Think of… the history of Apartheid = Extreme form of racism in South Africa.

124 Learn to read between the lines: What’s the answer
Learn to read between the lines: What’s the answer? Think of: Oppression.

125 If You See: Any question dealing with “Golden Age”
Think of: Best of times for a particular nation or empire. Great economy, literary period, arts, science/math, etc.

126 If You See: Mercantilism
Think of: Economic system – age of Exploration and beyond (W. European nations). Colonies were created to benefit the “Mother Country.” Colonies MUST serve. All wealth and power for the “Mother Country.”

127 Mercantilism

128 If You See: Pol Pot Think of: The “Adolf Hitler” of Cambodia (my words) = mass deaths. Over 2 million were brutally murdered. Often associated/connected to the Vietnam War.

129 If You See: Iron Curtain (taken from a speech)
Given by Winston Churchill – Prime Minister of Great Britain Think of: Cold War affairs A political/hypothetic wall created by the Soviets to separate Europe post-WWII. Created a world of twos: Western democracy/capitalist vs. Eastern/Communist.

130 If you see Stalin’s Five-Year Plan
Think of: - In the early 1930s, millions of Ukrainians died as a result of forced famine. - Genocide/Ethnic purge (mass killings)

131 If You See: Nelson Mandela
Think of: Apartheid in S. Africa = ultra racial discrimination/segregation at the hand of the whites = Afrikaans (Dutch settlers) and the British descendants. Arrested/then imprisoned for 27 years Worked to make S. Africa more democratic First black president of S. Africa.

132 Apartheid

133 Apartheid

134 Post-Apartheid

135 Interpret the slide: Explains why France failed to join the Allies in the Iraqi War (2003)

136 The Mongols = conquered vast lands

137 The Rome Empire

138 Interdependence

139 Interdependence

140 Proliferation of military weapons could destroy the world.

141 Pre-Columbian Era = shows that the natives had created magnificent things/structures (pyramids) prior to Europeans “discovering” the region.

142 Cold War: NATO vs. Warsaw

143 Pre-Age of Exploration: Pre-Columbus/Pre-“Discovery” of the New World = Trade conducted mainly around the Mediterranean Sea.

144 During the Age of Exploration = Europeans traveling across the globe
During the Age of Exploration = Europeans traveling across the globe. Europeans were “hungry” for exotic things/goods. The map also shows that the Chinese under the Ming Dynasty with “Junk” ships trekked to different parts of the globe, too.

145 Large/Vast Empire - By the 1500s, the Ottoman Empire controlled parts of the Middle East, North Africa, and eastern Europe – Muslim/Islamic

146 Speaks volumes to Human Rights violations in China even in today’s modern “free” world = The Chinese gov’t is infringing on or abridging citizens’ civil liberties/basic human rights.

147 Impact of AIDS = The bleak situations that plague sub-Saharan Africa

148 Monsoons = Wind (connects to trade, travel & weather pattern throughout the Indian Ocean)

149 1990s: Capitalist or Communist – Many decisions to make = End of the Cold War/Fall of the USSR (Early 1990s)

150 E.U.& its growth: Think of economic unity/end trade barriers, etc.

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