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What is the relationship between physical fitness, training and movement efficiency? - Health related components of fitness. - Skill related components.

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Presentation on theme: "What is the relationship between physical fitness, training and movement efficiency? - Health related components of fitness. - Skill related components."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is the relationship between physical fitness, training and movement efficiency? - Health related components of fitness. - Skill related components of fitness. - Measurements of health and skill related fitness. - Aerobic and anaerobic training. - Immediate physiological responses to training.

2 Health related components of physical fitness: Cardiorespiratory Endurance Defined: Refers to the ability of the working muscles to take up and use the oxygen that has been breathed in during exercise and transferred to muscle cells. Cardiorespiratory endurance’s relationship to movement efficiency: A well trained cardio-respiratory system ensures the delivery of adequate quantities of blood. A functional ventilation system. A good transport system to ensure efficient and speedy delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the cells.

3 Health related components of physical fitness: Muscular Strength Defined: Is the ability of the muscles in the body to exert force against a resistance in a single maximal effort. Muscular strength’s relationship to movement efficiency: Strength requirements are very relative to the Movement involved and the sport. Sufficient strength enables efficient movement and reduces the incidence of injury.

4 Health related components of physical fitness: Muscular Endurance Defined: Is the ability of the muscles to endure physical work for extended periods of time without undue fatigue. Muscular endurance’s relationship to movement efficiency: Movement for any extended period of time requires muscular endurance. Without it, technique deteriorates, continued movement is jeopardised and the likelihood of injury increases.

5 Health related components of physical fitness: Flexibility Defined: Is the range of motion about a joint or the ease of joint movement. Flexibility’s relationship to movement efficiency: The range of movement is directly influenced by flexibility of joints and surrounding tissues. Flexibility enables full movement actions and contributes to the quality of movement.

6 Health related components of physical fitness: Body Composition Defined: Refers to the percentage of fat as opposed to lean body mass in a human being. Body composition’s relationship to movement efficiency: The body requires sufficient stores of energy to enable movement, but excessive storage of fat is additional weight that must be moved in sport and places additional strain on joints.

7 Skill related components of physical fitness: Power Defined: A combination of strength and speed – explosive movements. Power’s relationship to movement efficiency: Power enables quick and explosive movements by combining strength and speed fitness components. Sports for which this component of fitness is particularly important: Weight lifting, boxing, martial arts.

8 Skill related components of physical fitness: Speed Defined: Is the ability to perform body movements quickly. Speed is not a responsive to training, it is dependant on muscle fibre type (fast twitch). Speed’s relationship to movement efficiency: Many movements required in sport require speedy execution in order for success. Sports for which this component of fitness is particularly important: Sprinting events in athletics or swimming and boxing.

9 Skill related components of physical fitness: Agility Defined: The skill of changing direction with speed. Agility’s relationship to movement efficiency: Agility is closely linked to efficient movement in many sporting activities that rely on speed combined with the need to dodge, evade, mark etc. an opponent. Sports for where this component of fitness is particularly important: Rugby league, touch and soccer – all sports which agility is essential in offensive moves to avoid defenders and create space. Similarly, defensive players require agility to counteract the agile moves of an attacker.

10 Skill related components of physical fitness: Coordination Defined: The ability to integrate body movements with messages from the different senses. Coordination’s relationship to movement efficiency: Coordination is important in the performance of skills. It requires an effective relationship between the brain and the muscles. Well coordinated athletes can learn new skills quicker and perform acquired skills more consistently. They are less prone to injury. Sports for which this component of fitness is particularly important: Tennis, cricket and baseball. These sports rely heavily on the performance of skills that require significant hand eye coordination to match striking skills with a moving ball.

11 Skill related components of physical fitness: Balance Defined: There are two types: static and dynamic. Static balance is maintaining equilibrium while stationary and dynamic balance is maintaining equilibrium while moving. Balance’s relationship to movement efficiency: Balance is essential in nearly all movements. Poor balance leads to falls, poor technique and inferior skill execution. Sports for which this component of fitness is particularly important: Surfing, ice skating and snowboarding. While all sports rely on good balance, these sports take place in environments which make balance even more difficult.

12 Skill related components of physical fitness: Reaction Time Defined: The time taken to acknowledge stimuli and respond appropriately. Reaction Time’s relationship to movement efficiency: Reaction time is essential in nearly all movements. Slow reaction time leads to poor skill execution and an increased risk of injury. Sports for which this component of fitness is particularly important: Boxing, fencing, 100m sprint. While all sports rely on reaction time, these sports take place in environments which make reactions even more essential.

13 Aerobic and Anaerobic Training FITT Principle F = frequency This means how often you exercise. The minimum recommended number is two to three times per week. However, for an elite athlete the number would be six times per week. I = intensity This means how hard you exercise. It is recommended that you should maintain our heart rate between sixty and eighty five% of its maximum. Maximum heart rate is calculated by 220 minus your age. Therefore, the target heart rate for a 20 year old would be between 120 to 170 beats per minute.

14 Aerobic and Anaerobic Training FITT Principle T = time This means how long you exercise. The minimum recommended is fifteen to twenty minutes. However, greatest results occur when training lasts for longer than thirty minutes. T = type This means the type of exercise you do. The type of training should suit an individual’s needs and abilities.

15 Immediate Physiological Responses to Training Heart Rate Is the number of times the heart beats per minute. At the start of a training session the heart rate rises rapidly to meet the increased demand for oxygen to supply the working muscles. As exercise intensity increases so too does heart rate. If the exercise intensity remains constant, after a period of time, the heart rate will plateau as the body is able to supply sufficient oxygen to the muscles. If exercise intensity continues to increase, so too will the heart rate until muscles are supplied with sufficient oxygen or fatigue causes the athlete to stop exercising. After ceasing exercise the heart rate declines rapidly and returns to normal after waste products such as carbon dioxide and lactic acid have been removed.

16 Immediate Physiological Responses to Training Ventilation Rate Is the total volume of oxygen breathed into the lungs per minute. At the start of a training session there is a rapid increase in ventilation rate. This is needed to supply the working muscles with oxygen. Similarly with heart rate, the ventilation rate will plateau after a period of time if exercise intensity remains constant. After ceasing exercise ventilation rate declines rapidly as the muscles have less need for oxygen. Ventilation rate will remain elevated until waste products have been removed.

17 Immediate Physiological Responses to Training Stroke Volume Is the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle during a contraction. At the start of a training session stroke volume increases gradually as heart rate increases. As the body requires more oxygen heart rate continues to rise and beat more strongly. This is due to an increased amount of blood being pumped with each contraction of the heart.

18 Immediate Physiological Responses to Training Cardiac Output Is the total amount of blood pumped out of the heart each minute. The formula for calculating cardiac output is: Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate This is expressed in litres per minute. When training, cardiac output increases as heart rate increases. Untrained people are able to increase their cardiac output to approximately 21 litres per minute when exercising while elite endurance athletes can increase their cardiac output to approximately 35 litres per minute.

19 Immediate Physiological Responses to Training Lactate Levels Is the amount of lactic acid found in the muscles and blood stream during intense anaerobic activity. During light to moderate exercise lactate levels remain relatively low. As exercise intensity increases lactic acid starts to build up in the body. Oxygen is required to remove lactic acid from the body. If there is insufficient oxygen to meet this demand lactate levels will continue to rise. If exercise intensity continues to increase so too will lactate levels. Eventually this lactic acid build up will cause fatigue and force the athlete to slow down or stop exercising.


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