Frequency (v): the number of complete wave cycles in a second. Given in hertz(Hz) Wavelength(λ): distance between any two peaks or troughs of the wave. C: speed of light (3x10 m/sec) Energy of the waves : It is proportional to its frequency and inversely proportional to its wavelength. Electromagnetic Spectrum : 8 E = ____ hc λ
Infrared Region (IR) IR photons do not have enough energy to cause electronic transition, but they can cause groups of atoms to vibrate with respect to the bonds that connect them. Each trough is caused because energy is being absorbed from that particular frequency of infra-red radiation to excite bonds in the molecule to a higher state of vibration.
Molecular vibration: the covalent bond between two atoms acts like a spring. 1-Stretching The bond will stretched or compressed. Symmetrical stretching Asymmetrical stretching Infrared Region (IR)
2-Bending: In- plane bending (scissoring and rocking ) Out of plane bending (wagging and twisting) scissoringrockingwaggingtwisting Infrared Region (IR)
Infrared Spectra: 4000-2500 cm -1 single bonds N-H, C-H, O-H N-H 3300-3500 broad with spikes O-H 3000-3600 broad C-H 2800-3300 2500-2000 cm -1 triple bonds C≡C,C ≡ N C≡C 2100-2200 moderate or weak 2000-1500 cm -1 double bond C=C,C=O C=O ≈1750 C=C 1640-1680 Below 1500 cm-1 “fingerprint” region
Fingerprint region: (from 1500-500 cm¯¹) Contains very complicated series of absorptions, mainly due to all manner of bending vibrations. Infrared Spectra:
C-H stretching (2800 – 3300) cm -1 Alkenes : C=C (1640 – 1680) cm -1 Alkynes : C≡C (2100 – 2200) cm -1 Infrared Spectra: