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The Chemistry of Life Ms. Sanford & Mr. O’Connor Jefferson High School November 11, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "The Chemistry of Life Ms. Sanford & Mr. O’Connor Jefferson High School November 11, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Chemistry of Life Ms. Sanford & Mr. O’Connor Jefferson High School November 11, 2008

2 Organic Chemistry the study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms What makes Carbon so important? can bond with many elements – Hydrogen – Oxygen – Phosphorus – Sulfur – Nitrogen can bond with other carbon atoms – form chains, almost unlimited in length

3 Carbon carbon-carbon bonds (covalent) can be single, double, or triple ability to form millions of different large and complex structures H H C H H H C C H H H C C H H C H C H C H H

4 Macromolecules “giant molecules” made from thousands or hundreds of thousands of smaller molecules – formed by polymerization – joining together of small compounds monomers  polymers monomers may be identical or different monomers polymer

5 Organic Compounds Carbohydrates – made of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), & oxygen (O) – 1 : 2 : 1 ratio (CH 2 O) Lipids – made of C, H, & O – ↑ 2 : 1 ratio (H : O) Proteins – made of C, H, O, & N

6 Carbohydrates Also called sugars Energy source Important in building other molecules Three Types: – monosaccharides – disaccharides – polysaccharides

7 Monosaccharide “simple sugars” 3 – 7 carbons in chain Glucose – most abundant sugar on planet – product of photosynthesis – principle sugar in human blood – approx. 5 g (enough for 15 min. of energy) Galactose – Milk sugar Fructose – Fruit sugar – Twice as sweet as table sugar Glucose, galactose, & fructose are all C 6 H 12 O 6 – Isomers (different 3-D forms)

8 Disaccharides two simple sugars bonded together produced through dehydration synthesis – removal of water molecule Maltose – glucose + glucose Sucrose – glucose + fructose Lactose – glucose + galactose broken down by hydrolysis – addition of water molecule

9 Polysaccharides Complex carbohydrates “poly” means many Simple sugars joined into long chains Play great roles in Biology

10 Polysaccharides Continued… Starch – storage product of plants – 100’s of glucose units – branched and unbranched Glycogen – carbohydrate storage in animals – similar to plant starch by more branching – continuous source of energy – any simple sugar not used or stored as glycogen becomes fat Cellulose – highly insoluble form of polysaccharide – used for structural support in plants

11 Lipids Organic form of stored energy Used as energy, after carbohydrates Include: – Fats – Oils – Waxes Three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol – Dehydration synthesis – gives off 3 water molecules Fat should be 20 – 35% of calories you consume Three Types: (each should be 1/3 of fat intake) – Saturated – Monounsaturated – Polyunsaturated

12 Saturated 1)solid at room temperature 2)raises blood cholesterol 3)sources  animal products – lard – butter – cheese – meat Single bonds that join two carbon atoms

13 Unsaturated Monounsaturated 1)little effect on blood cholesterol but provides a concentrated source of calories 2)olives, olive oil, peanuts, peanut butter, peanut oil, avocados, pecans, and almonds Polyunsaturated 1)low in cholesterol and liquid at room temperature 2)vegetable oils such as cotton seed, sunflowers, sesame and soybean Double bonds join two or more carbon atoms

14 Proteins & Amino Acids Macromolecules in charge of growth and repair of cells 15% of the mass of the average person made up of amino acids (50 – 2,000) – use only essential amino acids – basic chemical building blocks amino means there is an NH2 group a carboxyl group is made up of 1-(C), 2-(O), 1-(H)  acidic – 50 amino acids  20 are Essential (for life to exist) build all proteins needed for life – used in every cell of your body

15 More Amino Acids How are they different? – Different side groups – Three groups: Ionic Polar Non-polar Join together to make a chain

16 Proteins Continued… Where are proteins made? – in the ribosomes – dehydration synthesis makes proteins – amino acids form dipeptides – many dipeptides/polypeptides form proteins – different orders  protein type – highly folded and all twisted around like a knot di + di + di = poly poly + poly = protein

17 Where can Proteins be found? Muscle, cartilage, ligaments, skin, and hair Hemoglobin, hormones (insulin) antibodies, and enzymes Sources: – Beef – Poultry – Fish – Eggs – Dairy products – Nuts – Seeds – Legumes (beans, peas, lentils)

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