Presentation on theme: "Rwanda. First Impression(s) You are travelling to a country somewhere outside Canada, you meet a native of said country. They ask you what Canada is like…"— Presentation transcript:
First Impression(s) You are travelling to a country somewhere outside Canada, you meet a native of said country. They ask you what Canada is like… Using the sticky note provided, write the top 5 things you would tell this person about Canada. How would you describe Canada? Be prepared to share your list with the class.
Placemat Activity 1.Get into groups of 3-4 and divide provided paper using a template below 2.Gently place contents of ziploc bag in the centre of your placemat. This is your info packet. 3.Quietly and on your own for 2 minutes, write down as much info as you can gather about Rwanda from the provided info packet 4.When given the signal, we will do a ‘ghost walk’ (to be explained) 5.As a group, come to an agreement about the top 5 pieces of information from the info packet that you think best describes Rwanda 6.Be prepared to present your Top 5 list and a rationale for your choices
1300s Tutsis migrate to what is now Rwanda (already inhabited by the Twa and Hutu peoples) Late 1800s Tutsi King Kigeri Rwabugiri establishes unified state with centralised military structure 1850s John Hanning Speke first European to visit area
History of Colonization 1890 Area now known as Rwanda becomes part of German East Africa 1916 Forces from Belgian Congo invade 1919 Treaty of Versailles divides Germany’s colonies; Belgium gains control of part of the area 1924 League of Nations grants Belgium mandate for control of Ruanda-Urundi 1946 Ruanda-Urundi becomes UN trust territory governed by Belgium July 1, 1962 Rwanda and Burundi gain independence
Belgium’s influence Raubwirtschaft German for “plunder economy” or “robber economy” The goal is to take as much wealth and resources from a country or geographical area. Koloniale Raubwirtschaft Form of colonialism with same goal but no intention of developing the colony economically.
What did Belgium do? Issued passcards to Rwandans
1950s: The Road to Independence Belgium continued to rule with ‘intention’ to guide to independence Led to the emergence of two (2) rival groups Hutus wanted end to Tutsi ‘feudalism’ (holding land in exchange for labour) 1957: Hutus establish Parmehutu (a nationalist party) Tutsis wanted independence under present system (Tutsi monarchy) 1959: Tutsis establish UNAR (Union Nationale Rwandaise) 1959 – 1961: ‘Muyaga’ or The Wind of Destruction Ethnic violence between Hutus and Tutsis, initiated by Hutus where an estimated 20,000-100,000 people killed By 1962, Rwanda separated from Burundi and gained independence
Gr é goire KayibandaJuv é nal Habyarimana May 1, 1924 – December 15, 1976March 8, 1937 – April 6, 1994* *plane was shot down; his assassination helped spark genocide First elected President of the Republic of Rwanda that replaced Tutsi monarchy and instituted Hutu majority; led the fight for independence from Belgian control In July 1973, as Defense Minister he overthrew Kayibanda’s government; remained President of the Republic of Rwanda from 1973 until 1994 Founded Hutu Emancipation Movement Party (Parmehutu – a nationalist party) In 1975, he created the National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRDN)
The Rwandan Civil War Conflict lasting from 1990-1993 Between the government of President Habyarimana (Hutu) and the rebel Rwandan Patriotic Front (Tutsi group in other country) – Tutsis were trying to take back the power in Rwanda – Peace agreements were signed, but Habyarimana (Hutu President) doesn’t cede power to other political party – The action of an extremist Hutu paramilitary group called the Interahamwe, meaning "those who stand together" or "those who work together" or "those who fight together” Habyarimana
The Warning General Romeo Dallaire sends a message to UN leaders declaring he has information from an informant that Hutu extremists have a plan for extermination Kofi Annan, then leader of the UN’s Peacekeeping Forces, is skeptical; advises Dallaire not to take action Hutu extremists believe that if they act, the UN won’t intervene
April 6, 1994: The catalyst Presidents of Rwanda and Burundi die in a plane crash Extremists, suspecting that the President is finally about to implement the Arusha Peace Accords, are believed to be behind the attack – Accord signed by Habyarimana and RPF in Arusha, Tanzania That night the killing begins The orders come from highest political level – from ministers, council leaders, the Presidential Guard and Rwandan army soldiers. All are determined to exploit ethnicity in order to hang onto power. Habyarimana
April 7, 1994 The Rwandan Armed Forces and the Interhamwe set up roadblocks and go from house to house killing Tutsis and moderate Hutu politicians. Thousands die on the first day. UN forces stand by while the slaughter goes on. They are forbidden to intervene because this would breach their mandate to monitor. ESTIMATED DEATH TOLL: 8,000
April 21, 1994: DAY 14 UN cuts forces from 2,500 to 250 following murder of 10 Belgian soldiers assigned to guard the moderate Hutu prime minister, Agathe Uwiliyingimana. The guards had been told not to resist violently because this would breach their mandate. ESTIMATED DEATH TOLL: 112,000
April 30, 1994 The UN Security Council spends hours discussing Rwandan crisis. The resolution condemning the killing omits the word “genocide.” – Pope John Paul II on April 27 is first to use “genocide” to describe situation Had term been used, UN would have been legally obliged to act to “prevent and punish” perpetrators. Meanwhile refugees flee into Tanzania, Burundi & Zaire. In one day 250,000, mainly Hutus fleeing the RPF, cross into Tanzania. ESTIMATED DEATH TOLL: 168,000
Extension Read “Friendship Ended with Genocide” Respond to discussion questions: 1.First work SOLO. 2.When given the signal, you can discuss responses with a partner. 3.Be prepared to share your responses with the rest of the class.
May 17, 1994 As the slaughter of Tutsis continues the UN agrees to send 6800 troops and policemen to Rwanda with powers to defend civilians. A UN Security Council resolution says “acts of genocide may have been committed.” The US (President Bill Clinton) argues with the UN over the cost of providing heavy armoured vehicles for the peacekeeping forces. ESTIMATED DEATH TOLL: 310,000
June 22, 1994 With still no sign of UN deployment, the Security Council authorizes the deployment of French forces in south-west Rwanda. They create a “safe area” in territory controlled by the government. Killing of Tutsis continues in the safe area, although some are protected by the French. ESTIMATED DEATH TOLL: 616,000
July 1994 RPF captures Kigali, Rwanda’s capital. Hutu government flees to Zaire, followed by a tide of refugees. RPF sets up an interim government of national unity in Kigali. JULY 17 – GENOCIDE ‘OFFICIALLY’ OVER. Cholera epidemic sweeps refugee camps in Zaire, killing thousands. Different UN agencies clash over reports that RPF troops have carried out a series of reprisal killings in Rwanda. Meanwhile the killing of Tutsis continues in refugee camps. ESTIMATED DEATH TOLL: 800,000
Travelling to the refugee camps Approximately 2 million Hutus (both those who were victims and perpetrators) fled Rwanda for refugee camps in neighbouring countries (e.g. Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Tanzania, and Burundi)
August 1994 New Rwandan government agrees to trials before an international tribunal established by the UN Security Council. November 1994 UN Security Council establishes an international tribunal to oversee prosecution of suspects
Closing Activity Revisit your first impression(s) of Rwanda – Remember what you wrote on your placemat? How would you now describe the country? From your top 5 list what would you change? What would you keep the same? Form your “second” impression(s) of Rwanda