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Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Meeting 2 Chapter 7 (Morphology) and chapter 9 (Syntax)

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Presentation on theme: "Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Meeting 2 Chapter 7 (Morphology) and chapter 9 (Syntax)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Meeting 2 Chapter 7 (Morphology) and chapter 9 (Syntax)

2 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Today’s agenda Repetition of meeting 1 Mini-lecture on morphology Seminar on chapter 7, worksheet Mini-lecture on syntax Seminar on chapter 9, worksheet Preparation for meeting 3 - About semantics, pragmatics, and discourse analysis (ch.10-12)

3 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Repetition is the mother of all learning ”Bildning är det som finns kvar när vi glömt vad vi lärt oss” Ellen Key ( ) Do you remember?

4 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Morphology - the study of word structure What is a morpheme? a minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function; the smallest linguistic unit that has semantic meaning; a basic meaningful unit Compare with a phoneme: the smallest linguistically distinctive unit of sound

5 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Words: Simple or complex Simple: Cannot be broken down into smaller meaningful units: and, pig, chair, jump, berry, hospital. Complex: Can be analyzed into constituent parts/can be broken down into smaller meaningful units: houses (house + s), gentleman (gentle + man).

6 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Types of morphemes morphemes lexical free bound functional derivational inflectional

7 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Free vs. bound Free - can stand alone: and, pig, chair, jump, berry, hospital, town, dog, yellow, slim. Bound - cannot stand alone: unbreakable. Tend to be prefixes and suffixes; productive morpheme. ”Cranberry” – unproductive morpheme, exists only in bound form; cranberry, huckleberry.

8 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Lexical vs. functional Lexical – Carries the content of messages, open word classes (Ns, Adjs, Vs): zebra, yellow, hunt, twitter. Functional – Function words, closed word classes (Conjs, Preps, articles, Pronouns): and, the, a, an, but, there, it, she, under, because.

9 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Derivational vs. … Derivational - can be added to a word to create (derive) another word: rearrange, happiness, hospitalize. Prefixes and suffixes… They carry semantic information. What is the semantic information of re-, -ness, and –ize?

10 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics …inflectional Inflectional – indicates aspects of the grammatical function of a word, without deriving a new word or a word in a new grammatical category: dogs, dog’s, faster, fastest, sings, walked, singing, taken. There are 8 inflectional morphemes in English.

11 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Allomorphs Allomorphs are variants of a particular morpheme, e.g. ‘plural’ Give examples: 1.-s 2.-es 3.Ø (zero morph) 4.vowel change

12 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Worksheets 1-2 …and any other questions you might have

13 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Study Q 1 What are the functional morphemes in the following sentence? When he arrived, the old man had an umbrella and a large plastic bag full of books.

14 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Study Q 2 What are the lexical morphemes in the sentence? Haitians are used at the best of times to queuing for things; waiting is, after all, the first cousin of poverty. But in the nine days since the earthquake struck, they have become experts. (from The Guardian, Jan. 21, 2010)

15 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Study Q 3 List the bound morphemes in these words: fearlessly, misleads, previewer, shortened, unhappier.

16 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Study Q 4 What are the inflectional morphemes in these expressions? It's raining the cow jumped over the moon the newest style the singer's new songs

17 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Study Q 5 What are the allomorphs of 'plural' in this set of English words? ballons syllabi phenomena women churches children

18 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Study Q 6 What are the allomorphs of 'past tense’ in this set of English verbs? jumped tied ran became put Ø (no change)

19 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Syntax The analysis of sentence structure The system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation in human language. House painted student a the. A student painted the house. Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. *

20 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Noam Chomsky Language acquisition device, LAD ”I will consider a language to be a set (finite or infinite) of sentences” Generative grammar: Explicit rules that can generate an infinite number of sentences; syntactic structures

21 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Deep and surface structure Shaquille made a slam dunk. The slam dunk was made by Shaquille. NP + VP + NP (abstract level) Was a slam dunk made by Shaquille? It was Shaquille who made a slam dunk.

22 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Syntactic component of the grammar Phrase structure rules Deep structureTransformations Surface structure

23 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Structural ambiguity From Yule (2006): Annie whacked a man with an umbrella. Women catch colds easier than men.

24 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Tree diagrams S NPVP N V NP Annie whacked a man with an umbrella.

25 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Annie has the S NPVP N VNP Annie whacked a man with an umbrella. Art N PP

26 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics The man has the S NPVP N VNP Annie whacked a man with an umbrella. Art N PP

27 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Phrase structure rules Generative grammar: Explicit rules that can generate an infinite number of sentences; syntactic structures ”a noun phrase rewrites as/consists of/branches into an article followed by a noun” NP Art N NP NArt theball

28 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Lexical rules Specify which words can be used when constituents are rewritten. Example: Art a, the ”an article rewrites as a or the”

29 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Recursion From Yule (2006:93): 1.Mary helped George. 2.Cathy knew that Mary helped George. 3.John believed that Cathy knew that Mary helped George. Recursion!

30 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Transformational rules Movement of constituents within a sentence. There are very, very, very advanced transformational rules… Syntax is fun

31 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Worksheet 2 Go through answers!

32 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics For meeting 3 Yule (2006) Semantics (ch.10) –The study of meaning Pragmatics (ch.11) –How the transmission of meaning depends not only on the linguistic knowledge of the speaker and listener, but also on the context of the utterance, knowledge about the status of those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, etc.

33 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics For meeting 3… Discourse analysis (ch. 12) –The branch of linguistics that deals with the study and application of approaches to analyze written, spoken or signed language Bla, bla

34 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics Do you speak English? Big Train BBC Comedy Ali G interviews Noam Chomsky about ”language”

35 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics YouTube clips Chimp talk: rv1CrGq3o rv1CrGq3o Do you speak English? 0I7PCoy-nk&feature=related 0I7PCoy-nk&feature=related ”Ali G” interviews Noam Chomsky: IM1_xOSro&feature=related IM1_xOSro&feature=related

36 Pia Sundqvist ENGBG1 ENGBL1 Campus Linguistics The end Good luck studying


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