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A Comparative Study A Comparative Study. Manganese Mining Phosphate Mining Coal Mining.

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Presentation on theme: "A Comparative Study A Comparative Study. Manganese Mining Phosphate Mining Coal Mining."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Comparative Study A Comparative Study

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3 Manganese Mining Phosphate Mining Coal Mining

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6 Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn with an atomic number of 25. Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn with an atomic number of 25. It is found as a free element in nature (often in combination with iron), and in many minerals. It is found as a free element in nature (often in combination with iron), and in many minerals. It is a grey white, hard, yet brittle metal which resembles iron. It is a grey white, hard, yet brittle metal which resembles iron.

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8 Manganese is a reactive element that easily combines with ions in water and air. In the Earth, manganese is found in a number of minerals of different chemical and physical properties, but is never found as a free metal in nature. The most important mineral is pyrolusite, because it is the main ore mineral for manganese. Manganese is a reactive element that easily combines with ions in water and air. In the Earth, manganese is found in a number of minerals of different chemical and physical properties, but is never found as a free metal in nature. The most important mineral is pyrolusite, because it is the main ore mineral for manganese. Trace amounts of manganese are very important to good health. It makes bones strong yet flexible, and it aids the body in absorbing Vitamin B1. It also is an important activator for the body to use enzymes. As little as % Mn in the human body is essential. Studies have shown that a lack of manganese leads to infertility in animals. Trace amounts of manganese are very important to good health. It makes bones strong yet flexible, and it aids the body in absorbing Vitamin B1. It also is an important activator for the body to use enzymes. As little as % Mn in the human body is essential. Studies have shown that a lack of manganese leads to infertility in animals.

9 Over 80% of the known world manganese resources are found in South Africa and Ukraine. Other important manganese deposits are in China, Australia, Brazil, Gabon, India, and Mexico. The United States imports manganese ore because the manganese resources in the U.S. are relatively low in manganese content per ton of ore. Importing these ores is presently more economic than mining them locally. Most manganese ore imported to the United States is used to manufacture intermediate manganese ferroalloy products and electrolytic manganese for use in dry-cell batteries. Only a small amount of the ore is directly used in the steel making process.

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11 Steel becomes harder when it is alloyed with manganese. It has similar applications when alloyed with aluminum and copper. Hardened steel is important in the manufacture of construction materials like I-beams (24% of manganese consumption), machinery (14% of manganese consumption), and transportation (13% of manganese consumption). Manganese dioxide is used to: manufacture ferroalloys; manufacture dry cell batteries (it's a depolarizer); to "decolorize" glass; to prepare some chemicals, like oxygen and chlorine; and to dry black paints. Manganese sulfate (MnSO4) is used as a chemical intermediate and as a micronutrient in animal feeds and plant fertilizers.

12 Manganese metal is used as a brick and ceramic colorant, in copper and aluminum alloys, and as a chemical oxidizer and catalyst. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is used as a bactericide and algicide in water and wastewater treatment, and as an oxidant in organic chemical synthesis.

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14 A phosphate, also known as phosphorus, P or PO4, is, according to chemistry, a polyatomic ion or radical which consists of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen. In organic chemistry, the alkylated derivatives of phosphates are known as organophosphates. In biological systems, the phosphorus are found in the form of phosphate ion and various phosphate esters. Among others, it is found as the compounds DNA and RNA. Other compounds, like the substituted phosphines, do have their uses in organic chemistry but they do not seem to have any natural counterparts. Phosphate or phosphorus occurs naturally and is found in many phosphate minerals. Rare phosphide minerals may be found in meteorites but the elemental phosphorous and the phosphides are not found.

15 Phosphates are the naturally occurring form of the element phosphorus, found in many phosphate minerals. In mineralogy and geology, phosphate refers to a rock or ore containing phosphate ions. Inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in agriculture and industry. phosphorusphosphate minerals The largest phosphorite or rock phosphate deposits in North America lie in the Bone Valley region of central Florida, U.S.A., the Soda Springs region of Idaho, and the coast of North Carolina. Smaller deposits are located in Montana, Tennessee, Georgia and South Carolina near Charleston along Ashley Phosphate road. The small island nation of Nauru and its neighbor Banaba Island, which used to have massive phosphate deposits of the best quality, have been mined excessively. Rock phosphate can also be found in Egypt, Israel, Morocco, Navassa Island, Tunisia, Togo and Jordan, countries that have large phosphate mining industries.phosphoriteBone Valley

16 Phosphorite mines are primarily found in: North America: U.S.A., especially North Carolina, with lesser deposits in Florida, Idaho and Tennessee.North CarolinaFloridaIdaho Tennessee Africa: Morocco, mainly near Khouribga and Youssoufia; Senegal, Togo, Tunisia and Western Sahara.MoroccoKhouribga YoussoufiaSenegalTogoTunisia Western Sahara Middle East: Israel, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iraq, at the town of Akashat, near to the Jordanian borders.IsraelSaudi ArabiaJordanIraqAkashat Oceania: Australia, Makatea, Nauru, Ocean Island.AustraliaMakateaNauruOcean Island

17 In 2007, at the current rate of consumption, the supply of phosphorus was estimated to run out in 345 years. However, scientists are now claiming that a "Peak Phosphorus" will occur in 30 years and that "At current rates, reserves will be depleted in the next 50 to 100 years." In 2007, at the current rate of consumption, the supply of phosphorus was estimated to run out in 345 years. However, scientists are now claiming that a "Peak Phosphorus" will occur in 30 years and that "At current rates, reserves will be depleted in the next 50 to 100 years."

18 In ecological terms, because of its important role in biological systems, phosphate is a highly sought after resource. Once used, it is often a limiting nutrient in environments, and its availability may govern the rate of growth of organisms. This is generally true of freshwater environments, whereas nitrogen is more often the limiting nutrient in marine (seawater) environments. Addition of high levels of phosphate to environments and to micro-environments in which it is typically rare can have significant ecological consequences. For example, blooms in the populations of some organisms at the expense of others, and the collapse of populations deprived of resources such as oxygen (see eutrophication) can occur.eutrophication In the context of pollution, phosphates are one component of total dissolved solids, a major indicator of water quality.

19 PPhosphate deposits can contain significant amounts of naturally occurring heavy metals.  Mining operations processing phosphate rock can leave tailings piles containing elevated levels of cadmium, lead, nickel, copper, chromium, and uranium.  Unless carefully managed, these waste products can leach heavy metals into groundwater or nearby estuaries. ptake of these substances by plants and marine life can lead to concentration of toxic heavy metals in food products.

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21  Coal is a readily combustible black or brownish- black sedimentary rock normally occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds.  The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure.  Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly sulfur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.

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23 cmanganese.xusd.umt,cphosphates.xusd.umt#chart

24 manganese.xusd.umt,cphosphates.xusd.umt#chart

25 nganese.xusd.umt,cphosphates.xusd.umt#chart

26 nganese.xusd.umt,cphosphates.xusd.umt#chart

27 manganese.xusd.umt,cphosphates.xusd.umt#chart

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29 Environmental and Social Impact

30 Conclusion


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