High-Incidence Exceptionalities Include: Giftedness or Developmentally Advanced Learning Disabilities Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Communication Exceptionalities Behaviour and Emotional Exceptionalities Mild Intellectual Disabilities
High-Incidence Exceptionalities Include: Giftedness or Developmentally Advanced ~ demonstrates or potential abilities show exceptionally high capability in specific disciplines, creativity and/or intellect. Learning Disabilities ~ dysfunction is processing information. Often described as a discrepancy between ability and school achievement. Not due to hearing visual motor disability, emotional disturbance, environmental, economic or cultural disadvantage. General intellectual function within normal range. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ~ persistent form of inattention and impulsiveness that may be accompanied by hyperactivity.
Characteristics of Gifted Students Developmentally advanced in specific domains ~ Renzulli (1996) Triarchic model large vocabulary, high verbal fluency excellent retention of new knowledge facility for learning quickly and easily ability to generalize information ability to make abstractions readily good observational skills, capacity to identify similarities, differences, and relationships good organizational and planning skills
Enrichment for Gifted Students ≈ Sophistication – show student theories that underlie concepts ≈ Novelty – different and unique perspectives ≈ Authentic Problem Solving – applicable to their lives ≈ Independent Studies – personal interest ≈ Telescoping – look at overlapping curriculum ≈ Compacting – less time and practice (per assess) ≈ Ability Grouping – intellectual peers ≈ Mentor Programs – in community ≈ Open-Ended Assignments – how to show learning and how to assess ≈ Tiered Assignments – same assignment different levels of sophistication
Gifted Students ~ video In this video clip, a high school advanced-placement (AP) teacher uses a computer-based social studies simulation. List instances from the video clip where students demonstrate the following intellectual skills that are common to gifted students: formulates abstractions processes information in complex ways is observant is excited about new ideas enjoys hypothesizing learns rapidly uses a large vocabulary is inquisitive
Characteristics of Students with Learning Disabilities Students with LD have dysfunctions in information processing Usually defined as discrepancy between ability and achievement (reading, writing, maths) Defined by four aspects: neurobiological, genetic, long term and felt in all areas of life
Characteristics of Students with Learning Disabilities Siegel (UBC) suggests that all students who display some deficits in learning should be identified as LD ~ this is a pretty course screen The US (and Canada to some degree) are beginning to look to RTI as a potential definition...a process that emphasizes how well students respond to changes in instruction. the provision of scientific, research-based instruction and interventions in general education; monitoring and measurement of student progress in response to the instruction and interventions; and use of these measures of student progress to shape instruction and make educational decisions.
What are Students with Learning Disabilities like? Psychological Processes Perception – problems with organizing and interpreting what they are learning (letter reversals,) Attention – difficulty in focusing information, inattentive, hyperactive, in own world Memory – arranging and attending to what has been perceived (problems with working memory and storage) Metacognition – monitor and evaluate own learning, bets ways to learn, Organization – this one is self explanatory
Differentiated Teaching Overview of lesson in chart form Varying mode of presentation Cueing students to listen to important points Relate materials to students lives Make directions short and reinforcing with visual cues Clarifying understanding – privately? Collaborative and cooperative learning environments Offering and providing assistance when needed Preparing study guides so students know what they will be assessed on
Strategies for Students with Learning Disabilities Teaching Organizational Skills Provide an agenda book or assignment organizer. Example: demonstrate the use of the agenda book by showing on an overhead transparency what should appear for the first day; gradually have the class generate the daily list; then check only on those students who need help to use the system. Place an agenda on the board or on chart paper. Examples: for young students with LD, a checklist taped to the desk may have more impact; for older students, ask them to tell you at the beginning of a lesson what you have communicated about the day’s activities. Provide regular occasions for clearing desks, notebooks, and lockers. Examples: help students to file work samples in their portfolios; have the class generate a list of feasible and regular steps that each student can use to keep organized and a checklist of these steps.
Strategies for Students with Learning Disabilities Improving Note Taking Skills Do activities to promote active listening using content from your teaching. Examples: ask students to listen to softly spoken but audible conversational exchanges on audiotape; have students help create paired listening activities. Teach outlining. Example: provide an outline of your notes with specific spaces for students to add important points as they listen to a lecture; slowly decrease the amount of information until students are producing the outline; some may get a blank page earlier than others. Teach strategic highlighting. Example: copy key pages from the textbook and have students work in pairs deciding what to highlight and why through discussion; debrief on the overhead projector
Teaching Students with Behaviour Exceptionalities Students with behaviour exceptionalities exhibit ( 1+) Aggression ~ physical emotional sexual Negative psychological states ~ anxiety depression Behaviours related to social problems ~ substance abuse Extended time, more than one setting more than one person. Intervention deals with helping them improve behaviour Differentiate curriculum and structure the classroom What they are trying to accomplish; what they need to replace the behaviour; proactive interventions; reactive interventions ProSocial development or interventions
Teaching Students with Behaviour Exceptionalities Preventative Measures Establish an orderly and predictable class Establish a positive climate Strategies for Responding Behaviour or learning contract Teach pro-social behaviours Provide feedback Ensure success
Behaviour Exceptionalities ~ video Nick struggles with controlling his behaviour at home and school. This video shows how intervention helped him to learn to control his own behaviour. As you watch the video, think about the accommodations teachers can make for children with emotional or behavioural impairments. What kinds of inappropriate behaviour did Nick demonstrate? How did the special educators at Nick's school address these behaviours?
In class task Ask each student to submit one question about a high-incidence exceptionality. After establishing common themes and concerns, assign students to small working groups to address the clusters of questions. The objective is for students to get a sense of the complexity and range of challenges that face teachers of high-incidence exceptionalities. As well, students should also gain perspectives on the range of approaches available to teachers to address challenges they face and to gain an appreciation for their teaching colleagues as being one of the most valuable resources available to them throughout their career.
In class task As individuals have students to design an open-ended assignment for a class of their choice or in pairs have students design an open- ended cross-curricular assignment for a student with an exceptionality. Have each person in the pair represent a different subject area or a different set of subject areas. Use the example in Figure 3.1 on page 78. The objective is to have students engage in dialogue that leads to their understanding that students with exceptionalities often need to embrace the curriculum and instruction differently than their peers, that exceptional students will often have difficulty in more than one subject area, and that collaboration with other educators can facilitate the effective and meaningful inclusion of exceptional students.