Presentation on theme: "Branch Consulting Gifted Education Program Design and Administration Dr. Barbara L. Branch Executive Director, California Association for the Gifted."— Presentation transcript:
Branch Consulting Gifted Education Program Design and Administration Dr. Barbara L. Branch Executive Director, California Association for the Gifted
Branch Consulting Objectives Friday –Rationale for providing gifted education: Eight Gripes & Advantages –Statistical Rationale –Rights of the Gifted Child –Myths and Realities –State Law, Federal Law –NCLB Assignment Saturday –Common Core and GATE –Budgets LCAP/LCFF –Intelligence –Identification –Program Options –Cluster grouping activity
Branch Consulting Rationale for Providing Gifted Services
Branch Consulting Gripes and Advantages 1.Divide a paper in half with a line down the middle. 2.Write Gripes over the left column and Advantages over the right column. 3.List what you think gifted students would say are their gripes and what are the advantages to being identified gifted. 4.Share your list with the class. 5.Compare your list to the following list from When Gifted Kids don't have all the answers, by Jim Delisle & Judy Galbraith
Branch Consulting 8 Gripes of Gifted Students 1.No one explains what being gifted is all about - it's keep a big secret. 2.School is too easy and too boring 3.Parents, teachers, and friends expect us to be perfect all the time. 4.Friends who really understand us are few and far between.
Branch Consulting 8 Gripes of Gifted Students 1.Kids often tease us about being smart. 2.We feel overwhelmed by the number of things we can do in life. 3.We feel different and alienated. 4.We worry about world problems and feel helpless to do anything about them.
Branch Consulting Advantages of being gifted "I'm happy I'm smart because I love to get good grades and know what the answers are." Sushi Man, 5th grade "I always am happy with my condition. I can help other people and help the world. I can get smarter at the things I love most and usually do them well." Soaring Paperclip, 5th grade "I enjoy being smart because I am able to accomplish many things and I feel that being smart gives me more self-esteem." Crystal, 5th grade "I like being smart because then you have a bigger array of stuff to try and do." Stewart, 5th grade
Branch Consulting Advantages of being gifted "I love that I have unique interests and a place (class) in school where I can pursue them. I enjoy challenging myself to always reach the next level." Amelia, 7th grade "Having a great ability at something gives me the joy of immersing myself in working on that area." Michelle, 7th grade "I like to have more challenges and I like to have my work done on time." Bubba, 5th grade "Being gifted is great when the school meets me where I'm at academically. I love being challenged in my advanced classes." Wendy, 7th grade
Branch Consulting Advantages of being gifted "I'm happy being smart because I can always help my friends. You can solve problems easier. There are more chances to challenge yourself." Ailie, 7th grade "I just learn differently, and I'm okay with that." Cural, 5th grade "I am happy that I can achieve what is set in front of me. I strive to beat the challenge." Sawzall, 11th grade "I think I have found a lot of less-known things interesting, causing me to have a very diverse set of life experiences. Because of that, I have a very different thought process than most people." Scribblenaut, 12th grade
Branch Consulting Advantages of being gifted "Usually I'm glad to be somewhat intelligent in a world filled with stupidity and enjoyment of lame humor. It makes decisions in life much easier because I have enough knowledge and understanding to stay away from drugs and alcohol and focus my time into my studies." Jane, 12th grade "I'm glad that I am smart because I enjoy being able to write, read, and speak with a greater intellectual level. It also allows me to have a better grasp on whatever I am going over, whether in or out of school (i.e. our current History unit on the Civil War or Malcolm Gladwell's latest book)." Stewie, 11th grade
Branch Consulting Advantages of being gifted "I sometimes enjoy feeling smarter than the others and I feel like all that I have worked for in the past has paid off. And I'm thankful that there is a class where I can (humbly) exercise my abilities and be surrounded by others who have the same talents, a class where I won't feel different from other kids." Olive, 9th grade "I like that I can 'see through' the motives of the so- called cool crowd." Puff the Magic Dragon, 5th grade
Branch Consulting Why Should Gifted Students Be Supported? “Gifted and talented” is not always viewed very positively –Isn’t it elitist? Offends our egalitarian sensibilities – Democracy butts heads with intellectualism –Does superior intellect make us uncomfortable?
Branch Consulting Why Should Gifted Students Be Supported? Doesn’t it stigmatize kids or label kids? Is it fair to other students? Isn’t it just kids who get more field trips and special treatment like after-school programs?
Branch Consulting Why Should Gifted Students Be Supported? Numerous studies confirm a sad finding: Gifted students in the US have little good to say about their schooling. Are usually bored and unengaged in school Tend to be highly critical of their teachers Are asked to learn independently too often. Ellen Winner
Branch Consulting Rationale for Providing Gifted Services –Every child has a right to a free and appropriate public education at his or her level –All youngsters need appropriate peers and friends –If improperly nurtured and educated, gifted youngsters can become a powerful negative force in society Dr. Victoria Gardner Placker, B.A.Ed., M.S., R.Sc.P., Rs.D.
Branch Consulting Rationale for Providing Gifted Services –24% of drop outs are gifted –50% of the prisoners on death row in Oregon and Washington have IQ's over 130 –Think of the havoc wrecked upon our society by Ted Bundy, Charles Manson, and Ted Kaczynski. Dr. Victoria Gardner Placker, B.A.Ed., M.S., R.Sc.P., Rs.D.
Branch Consulting Rationale for Providing Gifted Services –Gifted children have specific behavioral characteristics in the cognitive and affective realms that present special learning needs that must be addressed by curriculum differentiation Van Tassel-Baska, 1998
Branch Consulting Why our Nation Needs to Educate our Gifted and Talented Youth About one-third of all jobs in the United States require science or technology competency, but currently only 17 percent of Americans graduate with science or technology majors … in China, fully 52 percent of college degrees awarded are in science and technology. (William R. Brody, president of Johns Hopkins University, Congressional testimony 7/05)
Branch Consulting Why our Nation Needs to Educate our Gifted and Talented Youth In the fourth grade, U.S. students score above the international average in math and near first in science. At eighth grade, they score below average in math, and only slightly above average in science. By 12th grade, U.S. students are near the bottom of a 49-country survey in both math and science, outscoring only Cyprus and South Africa. Less than 15 percent of U.S. students have the prerequisites even to pursue scientific or technical degrees in college. ( William R. Brody, president of Johns Hopkins University, Congressional testimony 7/05)
Branch Consulting Why our Nation Needs to Educate our Gifted and Talented Youth U.S. mathematics and science K-12 education ranks 48th worldwide 49% of U.S. adults don't know how long it takes for the Earth to circle the sun China has replaced the United States as the world's top high-technology exporterChina
Branch Consulting Why our Nation Needs to Educate our Gifted and Talented Youth "The real point is that we have to have a well- educated workforce to create opportunities for young people," says Charles Vest, head of the National Academy of Engineering, a report sponsor. "Otherwise, we don't have a chance.“National Academy of Engineering "The current economic crisis makes the link between education and employment very clear," says Steven Newton of the National Center for Science Education in Oakland.
Branch Consulting Why our Nation Needs to Educate our Gifted and Talented Youth 88% of high school dropouts had passing grades, but dropped out due to boredom (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation: “The Silent Epidemic” 3/06)
Branch Consulting Rationale for Providing Gifted Services We need gifted people to deal with our world's problems, and they need to be appropriately educated and emotionally healthy to do so! Our future depends on them! Dr. Victoria Gardner Placker, B.A.Ed., M.S., R.Sc.P., Rs.D.
Branch Consulting Statistical Rationale
Branch Consulting Sac City Data
Branch Consulting Sac City Data Sacramento City Unified School District
Branch Consulting 1.Who are the students in proficient or below by name. 2.Why aren’t they in advanced? 3.Do they have challenging curriculum in each grade level? 4.How many gifted students are not in honors or AP? Why not? Questions to Ask of Your Data
Branch Consulting First Writing Prepare a 2-3 minute talk to give to the school board to encourage support for gifted education in your district. Use the information you have collected and shared, the first two articles, and your own thoughts.
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child Read and discuss with your neighbor. Do you agree with all of the declarations? Dr. Barbara Clark, Growing Up Gifted, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997eighbor.
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child It is the right of a gifted child to engage in appropriate educational experiences even when other children of that grade level or age are unable to profit from the experience. Dr. Barbara Clark, Growing Up Gifted, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child It is the right of a gifted child to be grouped and to interact with other gifted children for some part of their learning experience so that they may be understood, engaged, and challenged. Dr. Barbara Clark, Growing Up Gifted, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child It is the right of a gifted child to be taught rather than to be used as a tutor or teaching assistant for a significant part of the school day. Dr. Barbara Clark, Growing Up Gifted, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child It is the right of a gifted child to be presented with new, advanced, and challenging ideas and concepts regardless of the material and resources that have been designated for the age group or grade level in which the child was placed. Dr. Barbara Clark, Growing Up Gifted, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child It is the right of a gifted child to be taught concepts that the child does not yet know instead of relearning old concepts that the child has already shown evidence of mastering. Dr. Barbara Clark, Growing Up Gifted, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child It is the right of a gifted child to learn faster than age peers and to have that pace of learning respected and provided for. It is the right of a gifted child to think in alternative ways, produce diverse products, and to bring intuition and innovation to the learning experience. Dr. Barbara Clark, Growing Up Gifted, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child It is the right of a gifted child to be idealistic and sensitive to fairness, justice, accuracy and the global problems facing humankind and to have a forum for expressing these concerns. Dr. Barbara Clark, Growing Up Gifted, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child It is the right of a gifted child to question generalizations, offer alternative solutions, and value complex and profound levels of thought. It is the right of a gifted child to be intense, persistent, and goal-directed in the pursuit of knowledge. Dr. Barbara Clark, Growing Up Gifted, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child It is the right of a gifted child to express a sense of humor that is unusual, playful, and often complex. Dr. Barbara Clark, Growing Up Gifted, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child It is the right of a gifted child to hold high expectations for self and others and to be sensitive to inconsistencies between ideals and behavior, with the need to have help in seeing the value in human differences. Dr. Barbara Clark, Growing Up Gifted, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child It is the right of a gifted child to be a high achiever in some areas of the curriculum and not in others, making thoughtful knowledgeable academic placement a necessity. Dr. Barbara Clark, Growing Up Gifted, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child It is the right of a gifted child to have a low tolerance for the lag between vision and actualization, between personal standards and developed skill, and between physical maturity and athletic ability. Dr. Barbara Clark, Growing Up Gifted, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997
Branch Consulting A Declaration of the Educational Rights of the Gifted Child It is the right of a gifted child to pursue interests that are beyond the ability of age peers, are outside the grade level curriculum, or involve areas as yet unexplored or unknown. Dr. Barbara Clark, Growing Up Gifted, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997
Branch Consulting Myths and Realities
Branch Consulting Activity Complete Distinguishing Myths from Realities Quiz with at least one partner – discuss each before you decide what to answer
Branch Consulting Myths Cooperative learning can be substituted for specialized programs and services for academically talented students Gifted students have lower self-esteem than non-gifted students Gifted children can get a good education on their own
Branch Consulting Zone of Proximal Development The gap between what a learner can accomplish independently and what a learner cannot do, even with assistance. Dependent Independent Too Hard Too Easy Just Right
Branch Consulting Zone of Proximal Development Dependent Independent Dependent Independent Dependent Independent Gifted Child Average Children Dependent Independent High-achiever
Branch Consulting Myths –Gifted students are a homogeneous group, all high achievers. –Gifted students do not need help. If they are really gifted, they can manage on their own. –Gifted students have fewer problems than others because their intelligence and abilities somehow exempt them from the hassles of daily life.
Branch Consulting Myths –The future of a gifted student is assured: a world of opportunities lies before the student. –Gifted students are self-directedti they know where they are heading.
Branch Consulting Myths –The social and emotional development of the gifted student is at the same level as his or her intellectual development. –Gifted students are nerds and social isolates.
Branch Consulting Myths –The primary value of the gifted student lies in his or her brain power. –The gifted student's family always prizes his or her abilities. –Gifted students need to serve as examples to others and they should always assume extra responsibility.
Branch Consulting Myths –Gifted students make everyone else smarter. –Gifted students can accomplish anything they put their minds to. All they have to do is apply themselves. –Gifted students are naturally creative and do not need encouragement. –Gifted children are easy to raise and a welcome addition to any classroom.
Branch Consulting Realities –Gifted students are often perfectionistic and idealistic. They may equate achievement and grades with self-esteem and self-worth, which sometimes leads to fear of failure and interferes with achievement. –Gifted students may experience heightened sensitivity to their own expectations and those of others, resulting in guilt over achievements or grades perceived to be low.
Branch Consulting Realities –Gifted students are asynchronous. Their chronological age, social, physical, emotional, and intellectual development may all be at different levels. For example, a 5-year-old may be able to read and comprehend a third-grade book but may not be able to write legibly. - Gifted students may be so far ahead of their chronological age mates that they know more than half the curriculum before the school year begins! Their boredom can result in low achievement and low grades.
Branch Consulting Realities –Some gifted children are "mappers" (sequential learners), while others are "leapers" (spatial learners). Leapers may not know how they got a "right answer." Mappers may get lost in the steps leading to the right answer.
Branch Consulting Realities –Gifted children are problem solvers. They benefit from working on open-ended, interdisciplinary problemsti for example, how to solve a shortage of community resources. –Gifted students often refuse to work for grades alone.
Branch Consulting Realities –Gifted students often think abstractly and with such complexity that they may need help with concrete study- and test- taking skills. They may not be able to select one answer in a multiple choice question because they see how all the answers might be correct.
Branch Consulting Realities –Gifted students who do well in school may define success as getting an "A" and failure as any grade less than an "A." –By early adolescence they may be unwilling to try anything where they are not certain of guaranteed success.
Branch Consulting Top Ten Myths in Gifted Education
Branch Consulting State Law & Federal Law
Branch Consulting Children and youth with outstanding talent perform or show the potential for performance at remarkably high levels of accomplishment when compared with others of their age, experience, or environment. These children and youth exhibit high performance capability in intellectual, creative, and/or artistic areas, possess an unusual leadership capacity, or excel in specific academic fields. They require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the schools. Outstanding talents are present in children and youth from all cultural groups, across all economic strata, and in all areas of human endeavor. Federal Definition of Giftedness
Branch Consulting Title I Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged Part A - Improving Basic Programs Operated by LEAs Section State Plans States are required to explain the method used to define "annual yearly progress" and may use a host of academic indicators, including changes in the percentage of students in gifted and talented, advanced placement, and college preparatory programs. (Section 1111(b)(2)(C)(vii)). (Page 24)
Branch Consulting Title I Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged Part A - Improving Basic Programs Operated by LEAs Section State Plans States are required to explain the method used to define "annual yearly progress" and may use a host of academic indicators, including changes in the percentage of students in gifted and talented, advanced placement, and college preparatory programs. Section 1111(b)(2)(C)(vii) Page 24
Branch Consulting Title II Preparing, Training & Recruiting High Quality Teachers & Principals Section 2122: Local application and needs assessment. An LEA application for a sub-grant from the state must include an explanation of how the LEA will provide training to enable teachers to address the needs of students with different learning styles, particularly students with disabilities, with special learning needs (including students with gifts and talents).... Section 2122(b)(9)(A) Page 210
Branch Consulting Title V Promoting Informed Parental Choice and Innovative Programs Part A - Innovative Programs Subpart 3 - Local Innovative Education Programs (Note: this is the local block grant section of the Act) Funds to LEAs shall be used for innovative assistance programs, which may include "programs to provide for the educational needs of gifted and talented children.“ Section 5131(a)(7) Page 363
Branch Consulting Jacob Javits Grant
Branch Consulting Title VII Indian, Native Hawaiian, and Alaska Native Education Part A - Indian Education Subpart 3 National Activities Section 7134 is Gifted & Talented Indian Students (Page 510) Part B - Native Hawaiian Education Section 7205(a)(3)(E) is Gifted and Talented Native Hawaiian Students (Page 524)
Branch Consulting Title X, Part C, Homeless Education Section 1032 amends Subtitle B of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act as follows: Section 722(g)(4)(D) Grants for State and Local Activities: Requires LEAs that receive funds under the McKinney Act to provide homeless children services comparable to services offered to other students in the school, including programs for gifted and talented students. (Page 584) Section 723(d)(2) LEA sub-grants Permits LEAs to use funds awarded through sub-grants from the state under the McKinney Act on expedited evaluations of the strengths and needs of homeless children, including needs and eligibility for gifted and talented programs and services (Page 588)
Branch Consulting Federal Statistics Definition 25 states have a definition of giftedness from the legislature 21 states have a definition of giftedness from the state agency 4 states have no definition 32 states mandate gifted education On average states identify about 6% of the student population as gifted State of the Nation. NAGC
Branch Consulting Federal Statistics Teacher Training 3 states require general education teachers to have some type of training in gifted education 8 states estimate that 5% or fewer of general education teachers in the state receive annual professional development in gifted education Only 17 states require teachers in gifted and talented programs to have a gifted education credential 3 states require administrators and/or counselors to receive training in the needs of gifted students as part of their endorsement or certification State of the Nation. NAGC
Branch Consulting Federal Statistics Acceleration Only 9 states have policies permitting acceleration of studentsti 22 states leave the decision to school districts 16 states prohibit students from starting Kindergarten early 3 states prohibit dual enrollment in which middle school students are also enrolled in high school State of the Nation. NAGC
Branch Consulting Federal Statistics Data Reporting 17 states do not collect demographic data about the gifted student population 9 states report on the academic performance and/or learning growth of gifted students as a separate group on state report cards or other accountability measures 15 states include the number of identified gifted students on district report cards State of the Nation. NAGC
Branch Consulting Federal Statistics Funding 14 states provided no funding to local districts for gifted education Of the 25 states that provided funds to districts 9 states provided between $1 million and $10 million to school districtsti 8 provided $40 million or more 12 states increased their funding compared to 2010, most with slight increases 6 states made cuts in state funding since State of the Nation. NAGC
Branch Consulting Federal Numbers California528, % Colorado 66, % Kentucky102, % Oklahoma 99, % Texas387, % West Virginia 5, %
Branch Consulting California Definition Each district shall use one or more of these categories in identifying pupils as gifted and talented in all categories, identification of a pupil’s extraordinary capability shall be in relation to the pupil’s chronological peers. –Intellectual Ability: A Pupil demonstrates extraordinary or potential for extraordinary intellectual development –Creative Ability: A Pupil characteristically: Perceives unusual relationships among aspects of the pupil’s environment and among ideasti Overcomes obstacles to thinking and doingti Produces unique solutions to problems –Specific Academic Ability: A pupil functions at highly advanced academic levels in particular subject areas. –Leadership Ability: A pupil displays the characteristic behaviors necessary for extraordinary leadership. –High Achievement: A pupil consistently produces advanced ideas and products and/or attains exceptionally high scores on achievement tests. –Visual and Performing Arts Talent: A Pupil originates, performs, produces, or responds at extraordinarily high levels in the arts. –Any other category which meets the standards set forth in these regulations CAL CODE REGS, title 5, § 3822
Branch Consulting History of Gifted Education in California MGM – 1961 GATE – 1980 – AB 1040 Districts set up own criteria Expanded services beyond intellectually gifted Updated GATE with standards - AB 2313 Title V of the State Code
Branch Consulting Review of Law in California AB 2313 – September 2000 Before AB 2313 –200 minutes per week for 30 weeks –Qualitatively different instruction AB 2313 –Calls for a differentiation of the core curriculum all day
Branch Consulting Recommended Program Standards Collaboration of CAG and CDE approved by State Board of Education Standards for 1, 2 3, or 5 year plans for exemplary districts
Branch Consulting Recommended Program Standards Components –Program Design –Identification –Curriculum and Instruction –Social & Emotional Development –Professional Development –Parent and Community Involvement –Program Assessment
Branch Consulting Compliance Review Background GATE not mandated in California New law – AB 2313 Not part of the consolidated application but under CCR for over 10 years Was part of CPM No longer monitored by the CDE
Branch Consulting Saturday Common Core Budgets LCFF/LCAP Intelligence Identification Program Options Cluster Grouping Activity
Differentiating the Common Core State Standards for Gifted Students 83
84 Identifying the Dimensions of Differentiation Existing in the CCSS Dimensions of Differentiation Acceleration Depth Complexity Novelty CCSS Anchor Standards ELA Listening and Speaking #2 – Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. Differentiated CCSS Standard Interdisciplinary techniques (Complexity) to judge with criteria (Novelty) the information presented in diverse media by identifying the patterns (Depth) that provide visual, quantitative, and oral information.
85 Relationship of CCSS and Differentiated Curriculum Elements Anchor Standard in Reading #8 – Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. Acceleration Think Like a Disciplinarian Novelty Art of Argumentation Critical Thinking–prove with evidence Depth Details Rules Complexity Context
86 Relationship of CCSS and Differentiated Curriculum Elements Anchor Standard in Writing #3 – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well- structured event sequences. Acceleration Universal Concepts (Power, Change) Novelty Imagined Experiences (Creativity) Depth Patterns Trends Language of the Discipline
Branch Consulting Budgets
Branch Consulting National Expenditure
Branch Consulting California GATE Funding Process Total Apportionment Total ADA $55,344,989 6,275,469 kids Each district received $8.82 per total ADA =$8.82
Branch Consulting Flexibility funds including GATE are placed in a block grant. Districts have flexibility to use the block grant of funds in any program All categorical funds are cut 15% An additional 4.9% cut this year Districts can sweep carryover funds from this year
Branch Consulting GATE and the New LCFF Where do we Fit? LCFF
Branch Consulting LCFF
Branch Consulting LCFF/LCAP Budget Aligned to LCAP Local Control Accountability Plans (LCAPs) For , and each subsequent year, the LCAP must be adopted before the LEA adopts its budget The county superintendent, or SPI, shall disapprove a budget that does not include the expenditures necessary to implement the LCAP
Branch Consulting LCAPs – State Priorites 1.Compliance with Williams criteria – instructional materials, teacher assignments and credentials, facilities 2.Implementation of SBE adopted academic content standards, including programs and services for ELs to access the common core and ELD standards 3.Parental involvement 4.Pupil Achievement – statewide assessments, API, completion of A-G requirements, CTE sequences and AP courses, EL progress toward proﬁciency, college preparation (Early Assessment Program)
Branch Consulting LCAPs – State Priorities 5.Pupil engagement – attendance, dropout and graduation rates 6.School climate – suspension and expulsion rates, etc. 7.Access, including for subgroup, to a broad course of study in speciﬁed subject areas 8.Pupil outcomes in speciﬁed subject areas Two additional priorities for COEs: 1.Services for expelled students 2.Regional services for foster youth
Branch Consulting California Education Budget
Branch Consulting Gifted Education Support Is Rare Find
Branch Consulting Measuring Intelligence
Branch Consulting Intelligence History of Intelligence
Branch Consulting Plucker, J. A. (Ed.). (2003). Human intelligence: Historical influences, current controversies, teaching resources. Retrieved [11/09/2004], from
Branch Consulting Phrenology
Branch Consulting Measuring Intelligence Craniometry 1849 Samuel George Morton, , devised a system of filling empty skulls with small seeds and then removing the seeds to measure the volume.
Branch Consulting Measuring Intelligence Craniometry 1849 Naturally, this required that the subjects be dead, and that the only "results" were comparative skull sizes of various groups, which led to hypotheses about those groups. Paul Broca, , replaced the seeds with lead shot, but craniometry remained otherwise static for nearly a century.
Branch Consulting Galton Historiometry Measured reaction time and grip strength, and looked for a correlation between these measures and measures of success in endeavors thought to reflect intellectual ability, such as one's class rank in school or one's occupational level
Branch Consulting Measuring Intelligence Binet 1904 Binet, , a student of Broca’s, was commissioned in 1904 by the minister of public education in France to develop a method for identifying children who might benefit from special education curricula.
Branch Consulting Measuring Intelligence Binet 1904 Binet developed a series of tests related to common tasks involving reasoning, comprehension, invention and censure.. In 1905, Binet published these tasks as the first Binet scale, and modern intelligence testing was born.
Branch Consulting Binet and Simon (1908/1916) “We have sought to find the natural intelligence of the child, and not his degree of culture, his amount of instruction. A very intelligent child may be deprived of instruction by circumstances foreign to his intelligence. He may have lived far from schoolti he may have had a long illnessti …” (pp ).
Branch Consulting Measuring Intelligence Goddard Just three years after Binet developed his scale, the test crossed the Atlantic and gave rise to the American eugenics movement. Goddard began testing immigrants at New York's Ellis Island using his translation of the Binet scale. He found that forty percent of the immigrants fell into the newly formed "moron" class, which he and his colleagues believed was a group doomed to crime and poverty.
Branch Consulting Measuring Intelligence Stanford-Binet In 1916, Stanford professor Lewis M. Terman expanded the scale dramatically and gave it a new name-the Stanford- Binet. It was to become the standard for mental testing in the twentieth century, and all tests that followed were really just variations.
Branch Consulting 1917 Army IQ Alpha Test Information Practical Judgment Arithmetical Problems Synonyms-Antonyms Disarranged Sentences Number Series Completion Analogies
Branch Consulting 1917 Army IQ Beta Test Picture Completion Maze Cube Analysis X-O Series Digit Symbol Number Checking Geometrical Construction
1927 Army Testing Program
Branch Consulting Verbal Nonverbal Intelligence? Definition of intelligence: “The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment (1939)” Wechsler based his test on the Army Mental Testing Program
Branch Consulting Wechsler Scales Performance IQ Scale is comprised of nonverbal and spatial tests –Block Design –Object Assembly –Picture Completion –Picture Arrangement –Coding (Digit Symbol)
Branch Consulting Wechsler Intelligence Scale Verbal IQ Scale is comprised of tests of verbal comprehension and verbal expression –Information –Similarities –Arithmetic –Vocabulary –Comprehension
Branch Consulting Identification Around the World Share Cross-Cultural Identification Survey Results
Branch Consulting Why Nonverbal Tests? Appropriate for many children Does not require verbal skills Does not require achievement Requires minimal motor skills Allows ample time for responding Can be given individually or in groups More fair to minority populations To find gifted children who are not achieving to their potential (David Mills, DPI North Carolina)
Branch Consulting Raven Progressive Matrices Designed to measure “mental activity [which] involves making meaning out of confusion…forming (largely non-verbal) constructs which facilitate the handling of complex problems involving many mutually dependent variables” (Raven, 1990, p. G3). “Matrices measure the ability to educe relationships” (Raven, 1990, p. G4).
Branch Consulting Online Example of Similar Test IQ Test
Branch Consulting NNAT ‘The NNAT is a brief, culture-fair, nonverbal measure of ability NNAT items assess ability without requiring the student to read, write, or speak NNAT uses abstract figural designs, and does not rely on verbal skills or achievement
Branch Consulting Structure of NNAT Seven levels 38 items per level Each level was designed to have –good ceiling / floor –good reliability –as many as four item clusters LevelGrades AK B1 C2 D3 & 4 E5 & 6 F7 - 9 G
Branch Consulting Group Test Comparison Raven TONI-3 MAT-SF NNAT
Branch Consulting Group Administered Tests NNAT
Branch Consulting Program Options Based on identification
Branch Consulting Gifted Program Delivery Models What can schools do to help these students when they really care, but don’t have the funds?
Branch Consulting Gifted Program Delivery Models Some gifted students may be candidates for early entrance to kindergarten, or possibly first grade if they are already reading.
Branch Consulting Gifted Program Delivery Models Pre-assess gifted students before a unit or a course for mastery of the subject matter and offer a more advanced unit or course. Self-contained classes for gifted students, particularly in core curriculum classes, help them move on to more advanced subjects.
Branch Consulting Gifted Program Delivery Models Multi-age, self-contained gifted classes are even more effective. Learning with intellectual peers encourages gifted students to achieve.
Branch Consulting Gifted Program Delivery Models Subject acceleration is appropriate when a student is proficient in a particular subject. Consider grade acceleration when a student demonstrates proficiency at a particular grade level. Use the Iowa Acceleration Scale to evaluate this and other options. Subject Grade
Branch Consulting Gifted Program Delivery Models Dual enrollment in middle or high school, or high school and college, offers challenging opportunities for gifted students.
Branch Consulting Gifted Program Delivery Models Offer Advanced Placement (AP) courses and/or International Baccalaureate (IB) programs for gifted students. Provide counselors who are trained to counsel gifted students, including advising them of talent development opportunities.
Branch Consulting Gifted Program Delivery Models Advise students of Academic Talent Searches, scholarships and academic competitions and give students credit for the advanced courses they take in academic summer programs.
Branch Consulting Gifted Program Delivery Models Create a school culture that values intellectual discovery and achievements, where students encourage one another to accomplish more than they would on their own. Encourage administrators and teachers to educate themselves on the wide range of exceptional abilities among bright students and increase flexibility in addressing the individual learning needs of gifted
Branch Consulting Rationale for Cluster Grouping Placing high achievers together in one classroom challenges those students, enabling other students to become academic leaders and allowing new talent to emerge. Marcia Gentry
Branch Consulting Rationale for Cluster Grouping Cluster grouping makes it easier for teachers to meet the needs of students in their classrooms by reducing the achievement range of students within a classroom. Cluster grouping used in conjunction with challenging instruction and high teacher expectations may improve how teachers view their students with respect to ability and achievement. Marcia Gentry
Branch Consulting Rationale for Cluster Grouping Achievement scores improved over a three-year period for students in a cluster group environment and the number of students identified as high achievers increased. Marcia Gentry
Branch Consulting Rationale for Cluster Grouping Flexible grouping within and between classes that reduces the achievement range of each class can provide many benefits to all students and teachers. The positive effects of cluster grouping result from many changes in the school climate such as: Marcia Gentry
Branch Consulting Rationale for Cluster Grouping creating opportunities for staff development, emphasizing a variety of instructional strategiesti raising teacher expectationsti creating a sense of ownershipti Marcia Gentry
Branch Consulting Rationale for Cluster Grouping reducing the range of achievement levels in classroomsti creating opportunities for collaboration with colleagues and administration. Marcia Gentry
Branch Consulting Joint Enrollment/Postsecondary Options Enrollment in college, university, or technical school may serve as the gifted instruction districts are required to provide for qualified students.
Branch Consulting Joint Enrollment/Postsecondary Options FTE funding generated while away from the regular school campus is awarded to the postsecondary institution. Students must meet state regulations for attendance and be present on the secondary campus for at least three instructional segments.
Branch Consulting Parent Involvement Parents of gifted children are people too. They need help and guidance in understanding and appreciating the special needs of their gifted children without feeling inferior or jealous. Hostile feelings may lead to over protection, domination or exploitation
Branch Consulting Parent Involvement Hold Regular Parent Advisory Committee Meetings Each school should have a representative from their SSC Educate parents on topics of concern to them –Guiding the Gifted Child SeriesGuiding the Gifted Child Series Share the Plan Writing Process with parents Hold meetings in other languages to provide information for second language parents
Branch Consulting Parent Involvement Help parents form SENG groups –http://www.sengifted.orghttp://www.sengifted.org Help parents understand their gifted child with information about getting homework done, understanding other children who are not gifted, intensities of gifted children, perfectionism, asynchronous development
Branch Consulting Parent Involvement Hold school family nights but let the gifted kids develop the project instead of the teachers Create a parent newsletter written by the students Create or join the district Parent University in providing classes for parents
Branch Consulting Community Involvement Keep your district website up to date with parent links for information about gifted children Support parents through GATE budget and plan to attend CAG Conference and other local institutes and conferences on gifted education
Branch Consulting Community Involvement Try not to dismiss the concerns of the parents of gifted or potentially gifted children Involve the community in fund-raising and mentorships Involve community groups in partnerships
Branch Consulting Categorical Program Monitoring Districts visited only if they have 1 year plans. Only compliances stated in the law are reviewed under CPM process. Plan due dates –Rocklin – 2010 –Lodi – 2009 –Vallejo
Branch Consulting Categorical Program Monitoring Gifted and Talented Education (GATE) Instrument for Categorical Program Monitoring (CPM): An Ongoing Monitoring Process Desired Outcomes –The local educational agency (LEA) provides opportunities for high-achieving and underachieving gifted and talented pupils, including pupils from economically disadvantaged and varying cultural backgrounds. (EC 52200[a]) –The LEA improves the quality of existing programs for gifted and talented pupils. (EC 52200[b]) –The LEA provides for experimentation in the delivery of the programs, including a variety of programmatic approaches and cost levels. (EC 52200[b])
Branch Consulting ( The following is the philosophy of Charles Schulz, the creator of the 'Peanuts' comic strip. You don't have to actually answer the questions. Just ponder on them.. Just read the straight through, and you'll get the point. 1. Name the five wealthiest people in the world. 2. Name the last five Heisman trophy winners. 3. Name the last five winners of the Miss America pageant. 4 Name ten people who have won the Nobel or Pulitzer Prize. 5. Name the last half dozen Academy Award winners for best actor and actress. 6. Name the last decade's worth of World Series winners. How did you do? The point is, none of us remember the headliners of yesterday. These are no second-rate achievers. They are the best in their fields. But the applause dies.. Awards tarnish.. Achievements are forgotten. Accolades and certificates are buried with their owners. Here's another quiz. See how you do on this one : 1. List a few teachers who aided your journey through school. 2. Name three friends who have helped you through a difficult time. 3. Name five people who have taught you something worthwhile. 4. Think of a few people who have made you feel appreciated and special. 5. Think of five people you enjoy spending time with. Easier? The lesson : The people who make a difference in your life are not the ones with the most credentials, the most money...or the most awards. They simply are the ones who care the most Pass this on to those people who have either made a difference in your life, or whom you keep close in your heart, like I did. 'Don't worry about the world coming to an end today. It's already tomorrow in Australia !' Be yourself..... everyone else is taken
Branch Consulting Categorical Program Monitoring Involvement Parents, staff, students, and community members participate in developing, implementing, and evaluating core and categorical programs. I-G 1. The LEA plan includes procedures for continuous participation of parents of gifted and talented education (GATE) pupils in recommending policy for the planning, evaluating, and implementing of the GATE program. (5 CCR 3831[j])
Branch Consulting Categorical Program Monitoring Governance and Administration II-G 2. The LEA plan describes the appropriately differentiated curricula for identified GATE pupils. (5 CCR 3831[j]) –2.1 The LEA develops a method for identifying GATE pupils in one or more of the following categories: intellectual, creative, specific academic ability, leadership ability, high achievement, and performing and visual arts talent. (EC 52202) –2.2 The LEA GATE program is planned and organized as an integrated, differentiated learning experience within the regular school day and may be augmented or supplemented with other activities related to the core curriculum. (EC 52206[a]) –2.3 A person is designated who has responsibility for the development of identification procedures, program implementation, fiscal management, and collection of auditable records for evaluation. (EC 52212[a])
Branch Consulting Categorical Program Monitoring Funding III-G 3. GATE program funds are used solely for the purposes of the program. (EC 52209) –3.1The LEA plan includes an objective-related budget for use of GATE funds. (5 CCR 3831[j]) –3.2Funds not expended in the current fiscal year are expended for GATE program services in subsequent years. (EC 52209[b]) –3.3Indirect costs charged to the program were no more than 3 percent. (5 CCR 3870) –3.4The school district maintains auditable records. (EC 52212[a])
Branch Consulting Categorical Program Monitoring Standards and Accountability IV-G 4. Evaluation of the program includes an annual review of pupil progress and of the administration of the program. (5 CCR 3831[j]) –4.1Modification of the GATE program is based on an annual review. (5 CCR 3831[j])
Branch Consulting Categorical Program Monitoring Professional Development V-G 5. The LEA staff development plan is based on a needs assessment that includes the specification of requisite competencies of teachers and supervisory personnel. (5 CCR 3831[j]) –5.1“Special day class” GATE teachers have preparation, experience, personal attributes, and competencies for teaching gifted children. (5 CCR 3840[a])
Branch Consulting Categorical Program Monitoring Opportunity and Equal Educational Access VI-G 6. The LEA provides equal opportunities for pupils to be identified for participation in the GATE program. (5 CCR 3820[e]) –6.1The LEA seeks out and identifies gifted and talented pupils whose extraordinary capacities require special services and programs. (5 CCR 3820[b]) –6.2The LEA seeks out and identifies gifted and talented pupils from varying linguistic, economic, and cultural backgrounds. (5 CCR 3820[f]) –6.3All identified gifted and talented pupils have the opportunity to participate in the program. (5 CCR 3831[i])
Branch Consulting Categorical Program Monitoring Teaching and Learning VII-G 7. The LEA provides differentiated learning opportunities commensurate with the gifted and talented pupil’s abilities and talent. (EC 52200[c]) –7.1Gifted and talented pupils have opportunities to acquire skills at advanced levels commensurate with their potential. (EC 52200[c]) –7.2Academic components are included in all program offerings, and where appropriate, instruction is provided in basic skills. ( 5 CCR 3831[g], EC 52206[c]) –7.3Underachieving, linguistically diverse, culturally divergent, or economically disadvantaged gifted and talented students receive services to assist them in developing their potential to achieve at the high levels commensurate with their abilities. (5 CCR 3840[i]) –7.4.Gifted and talented pupils have opportunities to develop realistic, healthy self-concepts. (EC 52200[c])
Branch Consulting California Education Code SECTION –support unique opportunities for high- achieving and underachieving pupils in the public elementary and secondary schools identified as gifted / talented. –ensure that pupils from economically disadvantaged and varying cultural backgrounds be provided with full participation in these unique opportunities.
Branch Consulting California Education Code Categories in defining the capability –intellectual, creative, specific academic, or leadership abilityti –high achievementti –performing and visual arts talentti –or any other criterion that meets the standards set forth by the State Board of Education pursuant to Section –Cut Score is 95th %tile (125 standard score)
Branch Consulting State Plan AB 2313 – requires plan for 1, 2 or 3 years Components –Program Design –Identification –Curriculum and Instruction –Social & Emotional Development –Professional Development –Parent and Community Involvement –Program Assessment –Budget – ADA * ~ $9.31
Branch Consulting Activity In a team, use state’s rubric to read all components of the your district plan Rate the plan together as a team