CONTENT OVERVIEW: THE “NOTEBOOK” Module 1: Overview and Introduction Module 2: Making Sense of the Appendices and the Alignment Document Module 3: The Quest for Rigor Module 4: Deconstructing the Standards Module 5: Assessment and Content Frameworks 3
Goal Participants will connect and apply background experience with standards to expand their understanding of the history, purpose, process, design, and content of the 2010 Arizona ELA Standards. Essential Questions Why Common Core Standards? What are the Instructional Shifts called for in the Common Core Standards? Why is the design of the document important? What is not covered by the AZ 2010 ELA Standards? What are characteristics of students who are college and/or career ready? How do I read this document? (K-12) OVERVIEW AND INTRODUCTION 4
THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS INITIATIVE 5 Beginning in the spring of 2009, Governors and state commissioners of education from 48 states, 2 territories and the District of Columbia committed to developing a common core of state K-12 English- language arts (ELA) and mathematics standards. The Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI) is a state-led effort coordinated by the National Governors Association (NGA) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO).
WHY COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS? 7 Preparation : The standards are college- and career-ready. They will help prepare students with the knowledge and skills they need to succeed in education and training after high school. Competition: The standards are internationally benchmarked. Common standards will help ensure our students are globally competitive. Equity: Expectations are consistent for all – and not dependent on a student’s zip code. Clarity: The standards are focused, coherent, and clear. Clearer standards help students (and parents and teachers) understand what is expected of them. Collaboration: The standards create a foundation to work collaboratively across states and districts, pooling resources and expertise, to create curricular tools, professional development, common assessments and other materials.
WHAT IS NAEP? The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the largest nationally representative and continuing assessment of what America's students know and can do in various subject areas. Assessments are conducted periodically in mathematics, reading, science, writing, the arts, civics, economics, geography, and U.S. history. Since NAEP assessments are administered uniformly using the same sets of test booklets across the nation, NAEP results serve as a common metric for all states and selected urban districts. The assessment stays essentially the same from year to year, with only carefully documented changes. This permits NAEP to provide a clear picture of student academic progress over time.
2011 National Assessment for Educational Progress 29% of Arizona 8 th graders below basic
AZ State Test – 71% Proficient NAEP – 28% Proficient
FEEDBACK AND REVIEW External and State Feedback teams included: K-12 teachers Postsecondary faculty State curriculum and assessments experts Researchers National organizations (including, but not limited, to): 11 American Council on Education (ACE) American Federation of Teachers (AFT) Campaign for High School Equity (CHSE) Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences (CBMS) Modern Language Association (MLA) National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) National Education Association (NEA)
COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS EVIDENCE BASE Evidence was used to guide critical decisions in the following areas: Inclusion of particular content Timing of when content should be introduced and the progression of that content Ensuring focus and coherence Organizing and formatting the standards Determining emphasis on particular topics in standards Evidence includes: Standards from high-performing countries, leading states, and nationally-regarded frameworks Research on adolescent literacy, text complexity, mathematics instruction, quantitative literacy Lists of works consulted and research base included in standards’ appendices 12
COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS EVIDENCE BASE 13 For example: Standards from individual high-performing countries and provinces were used to inform content, structure, and language. Writing teams looked for examples of rigor, coherence, and progression. Mathematics 1. Belgium (Flemish) 2. Canada (Alberta) 3. China 4. Chinese Taipei 5. England 6. Finland 7. Hong Kong 8. India 9. Ireland 10. Japan 11. Korea 12. Singapore English language arts 1. Australia New South Wales Victoria 2. Canada Alberta British Columbia Ontario 3. England 4. Finland 5. Hong Kong 6. Ireland 7. Singapore
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? Currently, every state has its own set of academic standards, meaning public education students in each state are learning to different levels All students must be prepared to compete with not only their American peers in the next state, but with students from around the world 14
KEY ADVANCES Reading Balance of literature and informational texts Text complexity Writing Emphasis on argument and informative/explanatory writing Writing about sources Speaking and Listening Inclusion of formal and informal talk Language Stress on general academic and domain-specific vocabulary 15
KEY ADVANCES Standards for reading and writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects Complement rather than replace content standards in those subjects Responsibility of teachers in those subjects Alignment with college and career readiness expectations 16
English Language Arts Lead Common Core State Standards Development David Coleman Video DAVID COLEMAN: INSTRUCTIONAL SHIFTS 17
Balance of informational and literacy texts Students access science, social studies, the arts and literature through text At least 50% of what students read is informational Shift 1 Balancing Informational and Literary Texts (PK-5) INSTRUCTIONAL SHIFTS TO SUPPORT STUDENTS IN LITERACY ACQUISITION 18
Content area teachers emphasize literacy experiences in their planning and instruction Students learn through domain – specific texts in science, social studies and technical subject classrooms. Students are expected to learn from what they read Shift 2 Building Knowledge in the Disciplines (6-12) INSTRUCTIONAL SHIFTS TO SUPPORT STUDENTS IN LITERACY ACQUISITION 19
Students read the central, grade appropriate text around which instruction is centered Teachers create more time and space in the curriculum for close careful reading of text Teachers provide necessary scaffolding Text Complexity Matters Shift 3 Staircase of Text Complexity INSTRUCTIONAL SHIFTS TO SUPPORT STUDENTS IN LITERACY ACQUISITION 20
Students have rich and rigorous conversations dependent on a common text Teachers insist that classroom experiences stay deeply connected to the text on the page Students develop habits for making evidentiary arguments both in conversation and writing to assess comprehension Shift 4 Text-Based Answers INSTRUCTIONAL SHIFTS TO SUPPORT STUDENTS IN LITERACY ACQUISITION 21
Writing emphasizes the use of evidence to inform or make an argument Students develop skills through written arguments that respond to the ideas, events, facts, and arguments presented in the texts they read Shift 5 Writing from Sources INSTRUCTIONAL SHIFTS TO SUPPORT STUDENTS IN LITERACY ACQUISITION 22
Students build needed vocabulary to access grade level complex texts Focus strategically on the comprehension of words such as discourse, generation and theory, and less time on literary terms (onomatopoeia) Teachers insist students use academic words in speaking and writing Shift 6 Academic Vocabulary INSTRUCTIONAL SHIFTS TO SUPPORT STUDENTS IN LITERACY ACQUISITION 23
2010 Arizona English Language Arts Standards Key Design Considerations INTRODUCTION 24
25 KEY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards K-5 Comprehensive English Language Arts (includes Social Studies, Science and Technical Text) 6, 7, 8, 9-10, ELA Content 6-8, 9-10, Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Appendices A, B, and C
KEY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Focus on results rather than means Integrated model of literacy Research and media skills blended into the Standards Shared responsibility for students’ literacy development Focus & coherence in instruction and assessment 26
27 THE INTRODUCTION Introduction Page 3 Key Design ConsiderationsPage 4 What is Not Covered by the StandardsPage 6 Students Who are College and Career Ready In Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening, and Language Page 7 How to Read this DocumentPage 8 Tab: Common Core Introduction
What is NOT Covered by the 2010 Arizona English Language Arts Standards 28
1.The Standards define what all students are expected to know and be able to do, not how teachers should teach. 2.Standards focus on what is most essential, they do not describe all that can or should be taught. 3.The Standards do not define the nature of advanced work for students. 4.The Standards set grade-specific standards but do not define the intervention methods or materials. 5.Standards do not define the full range of supports appropriate for English language learners and for students with special needs. 6.While the ELA and content area literacy components described are critical to college and career readiness, they do not define the whole of such readiness. ACTIVITY 1: HANDOUT WHAT IS NOT COVERED BY THE STANDARDS? 29
30 WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WHO ARE COLLEGE AND CAREER READY?
ACTIVITY 2: HANDOUT WHAT ARE CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WHO ARE COLLEGE AND/OR CAREER READY? List on your handout the characteristics of students who are college and career ready. Share at your table. Look for commonalities. Be ready to share with the entire group. 31
32 CHARACTERISTICS OF COLLEGE AND CAREER READY STUDENTS Demonstrate independence and the ability to work collaboratively. Possess strong content knowledge. Respond to the varying demands of audience, task and purpose. Comprehend as well as critique. Use evidence effectively to support ideas. Evaluate sources for credibility. Identify and understand bias. Utilize technology and digital media strategically and capably. Understand other perspectives and cultures.
How to Read This Document 33
College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards K-5 Comprehensive English Language Arts (includes Social Studies, Science and Technical Text) 6, 7, 8, 9-10, ELA Content 6-8, 9-10, Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Appendices A, B, and C 34
APPENDICES Appendix A: Articulates the research that supports the need for increased text complexity K-12. Appendix B: Applies understanding of text complexity to identify grade level text samples and corresponding performance tasks. Appendix C: Identifies exemplars of student writing. 35
36 Reading RL - Reading Standards for Literature RI - Reading Standards for Informational Text RF - Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K-5) RH - Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies (6-12) RST- Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects (6-12) Writing W - Writing Standards WHST - Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (6-12) Speaking and Listening SL- Speaking and Listening Standards Language L - Language Standards STANDARDS “FORMULA” = strand, grade, standard; EXAMPLES: SL.2.4 W.7.1 ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
LABELS OF THE ELA STANDARDS StrandStrand Reading Standards for Literature 1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 2. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details. 3.With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story. RL Kindergarten: Key Ideas and Details Craft and Structure 4.Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. 5.Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems). 6.With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling a story. StandardsStandards ClusterCluster StrandStrand ClusterCluster 37
CODING Reading Literature RL RL.3 38 Strand Standard Grade Level
Materials: Ringed Standards Select a Cluster and Standard from the College and Career Ready Anchor Standards (CCR). Find the Cluster and Standard match in the Standards. 1. How do the grade level standards build the necessary foundation to help students meet the College and Career Readiness Anchors? 2. What are the implications for instructional decisions and grade level expectations? ACTIVITY 3: HANDOUT BUILDING THE FOUNDATION 40
WHO IS RESPONSIBLE? College and Career Ready Standards K CCR mostly taught by one teacher CCR taught by multiple teachers CCR taught by multiple teachers CCR taught by multiple teachers
42 Reading: Text Complexity and the Growth of Comprehension Equal emphasis is on the sophistication of what students read and the skill with which they read. Whatever they are reading, students must also show a steadily growing ability to discern more from and make fuller use of text. Standard 10 defines a grade-by grade “staircase” of increasing text complexity.
OVERVIEW OF THE READING STRAND 43 Progressive development of reading comprehension; students gain more from what they read Emphasize the importance of grade-level texts that are of appropriate difficulty and are increasingly sophisticated Standards for Reading Foundational Skills (K-5) Reading Standards for Literature (K-12) Reading Standards for Informational Text (K-12) Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies (6-12) Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects (6-12)
44 GRADE-LEVEL PROGRESSION IN READING CCR Reading Standard 3: Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. Reading Standards for LiteratureReading Standards for Informational Text K: With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story. K: With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. Grade 3: Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. Grade 3: Describe the relationships between a series of historical events, scientific ideas of concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. Grade 6: Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution. Grade 6: Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).
45 GRADE-LEVEL PROGRESSION IN READING CCR Reading Standard 3: Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. Reading Standards for Literature Reading Standards for Informational Text Grade 8: Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision. Grade 8: Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories). Grades 9-10: Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. Grades 9-10: Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them. Grades 11-12: Evaluate various explanations for characters’ actions or for events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain. Grades 11-12: Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.
46 OVERVIEW: SPEAKING & LISTENING AND LANGUAGE STRANDS Speaking and Listening Focus on speaking and listening in a range of settings, both formal and informal – academic, small-group, whole-class discussions Emphasize effective communication practices. Require interpretation and analysis of message as presented through oral, visual, or multimodal formats. Language Include conventions for writing and speaking. Highlight the importance of vocabulary acquisition through a mix of conversation, direct instruction, and reading. Address language in the context of reading, writing, speaking and listening. Media and Technology are integrated throughout the standards.
47 SPEAKING AND LISTENING Note on range and content of student speaking and listening. Do provide ample opportunities for rich, structured conversation as part of a whole class, in small groups and with a partner. Ensure that students contribute accurate, relevant information and respond to what others have said. Provide opportunities to analyze and synthesize ideas in various domains.
48 EXAMPLE OF GRADE-LEVEL PROGRESSION FOR SPEAKING AND LISTENING CCR S&L Standard 6: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. S & L: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas K: Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly. Grade 3: Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 3 Language standards 1 and 3 on pages 28 and 29 for specific expectations.) Grade 6: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 52 for specific expectations.) Grade 8: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 8 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 52 for specific expectations.) Grades 9-10: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 9-10 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 54 for specific expectations.) Grades 11-12: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades Language standards 1 and 3 on page 54 for specific expectations.)
LANGUAGE STANDARDS: EMBEDDED WITHIN THE STRANDS 49 StrandStandard ReadingR.CCR.4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. WritingW.CCR.5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. Speaking and ListeningSL.CCR.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. Elements of the Language Standards in the Reading, Writing, and Speaking and Listening Strands
50 OVERVIEW OF THE WRITING STRAND Expect students to compose arguments and opinions, informative/explanatory pieces, and narrative texts. Focus on the use of reason and evidence to substantiate an argument or claim. Emphasize ability to conduct research – short projects and sustained inquiry. Require students to incorporate technology as they create, refine, and collaborate on writing. Include student writing samples that illustrate the criteria required to meet the standards (See standards’ appendices for writing samples).
51 EXAMPLE OF GRADE-LEVEL PROGRESSION IN WRITING CCR Writing Standard 7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. Writing: Research to Build and Present Knowledge K: Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them). Grade 5: Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. Grade 6: Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate. Grade 8: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. Grades 9-10: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self- generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. Grades 11-12: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
52 OVERVIEW OF STANDARDS FOR HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS Reading Standards for History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Ensure knowledge of domain-specific vocabulary. Analyze, evaluate, and differentiate primary and secondary sources. Synthesize quantitative and technical information, including facts presented in maps, timelines, flowcharts, or diagrams Writing Standards for History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Write arguments on discipline-specific content and informative/explanatory texts. Use data, evidence, and reason to support arguments and claims. Use domain-specific vocabulary.
Why Common Core Standards? What are the Instructional Shifts called for in the Common Core Standards? Why is the design of the document important? What is not covered by the AZ 2010 ELA Standards? What are characteristics of students who are college and/or career ready? How do I read this document? ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS Essential Questions Why is the design of the document important? What is not covered by the AZ 2010 ELA Standards? What are characteristics of students who are college and/or career ready? How do I read this document? 53
Using the document as a foundation for building teacher understanding about the 2010 Arizona ELA Standards, think about what you have learned and what you will take back to your site or classroom? ACTIVITY 4: HANDOUT STOP AND GO 54 Got it CoveredFirst StepsNext StepsDown the Road
RESOURCES Common Core State Standards: Center for K-12 Assessment & Performance Management at ETS Assessment Article Achieve-Information about PARCC Arizona Department of Education (Common Core) / 55