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Chapter 30 The West at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century Chapter 30 The West at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Displacement of People Through War World War II caused the displacement of 43 million people People displaced included Jews, Germans, Soviet prisoners of war afraid to go back to Stalinist Russia, along with Baltic, Polish, and Yugoslav prisoners Many ethnic minorities driven into their ethnic homelands Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Migration of 20th Century People Decolonization led people to leave colonies and return to their homeland (e.g. Great Britain received thousands of immigrants from its former colonies in the Caribbean, Africa, and India) Racial tensions arrive as many working class people resent the new immigrants Extreme right-wing group National Front in France runs Jean-Marie Le Pen in a losing election to Jacques Chirac in 2002 Similar racist movements arise in many other European countries Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The New Muslim Population Immigration of Muslims into Europe come from two chief sources European economic growth – labor shortages lead some European nations to invite “guest workers” to their country Decolonization – Muslims from India and Africa come to Britain, while Muslims from Algeria come to France Muslim immigrants for the most part remain unassimilated and self-contained, with the women remaining at home European Muslims are not homogeneous, coming from different class countries, class backgrounds and Islamic traditions Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
European Population Trends European birth rates are for the most part dropping Europe has an aging population Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Christian Democratic Parties Postwar Christian democratic parties in Germany, France, Austria, and Italy were progressive, promoting democracy, social reform, economic growth and anticommunism Allowed non-Catholic members Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Welfare States William B. Beveridge – British thinker who believed if medical care, old-age pensions, and other benefits were available to all, there would not have to be a redistribution of income Britain becomes first welfare state under Labour Party’s Clement Attlee, who creates the National Health Service after World War II France and Germany do not follow suit until the 1970’s Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Resistance to the Welfare State Three economic states in Europe since World War II: Reconstruction from 1945– s to late 1970s – period of economic growth Inflation in the late 1970s to a period of low growth and high unemployment from the 1990s to the present Many people believed government should be less involved in the economy Margaret Thatcher – British prime minister wanted to make British economy more efficient and competitive through privatization of industries and cutting the power of trade unions Welfare assistance in Europe to help the sick, the injured, the unemployed, and the elderly, meet resistance for higher costs and taxes Even left-of-center political parties in Europe have curbed welfare benefits Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Feminism Simone de Beauvoir wrote The Second Sex, exploring the differences being a woman made in her life Feminist journals published – starting in the 1970s Emphasis in movement on women controlling their own lives Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Why an Increase in Married Women in the Work Force? Childcare demands decreased by compulsory education and better health care Some women financially felt they had to go to work Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
New Work Patterns Women go to work when their children are old enough to go to school Women go back to work after their children have grown Women have less children and have children later in life so there is an increase in the work force Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Women in the New Eastern Europe Many of the nations have shown little concern for women’s issues Economic difficulties in the region limited the number of health and welfare programs Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Communism in Western Europe Disillusionment with communism – (four events) Stalin’s purges The Spanish Civil War Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956 George Orwell – English writer expressed his disappointment with Stalin’s pact with Hitler in Homage to Catalonia (1938) Other intellectuals such as Frenchman Jean-Paul Sartre and Italian Antonio Gramsci still believed in the Marxist system Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Existentialism Belief that holds human beings totally responsible for their acts and that this responsibility causes dread and anguish Friedrich Nietzsche – see Chapter 24 outline Soren Kierkegaard – Danish writer maintained Christianity could be grasped only by lives caught in extreme situations; questioned whether human beings are in control of their own destiny Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Questioning of Rationalism by Existentialists Famous writers like Martin Heidegger, Karl Jaspers, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Albert Camus all questioned the primacy of reason and scientific understanding According to the existentialists, human beings are compelled to formulate their own ethical values and cannot depend on traditional religion, rational philosophy, intuition, or social customs for ethical guidance Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
University Population and Student Rebellion Hundreds of thousands of students are enrolled in universities in the United States and Europe Student rebellion started in the United States and spread to Europe in the 1960’s United States – protesting Vietnam War France – protesting the government of Charles de Gaulle Czechoslovakia – protested communism and the Soviets Student rebellions were largely unsuccessful Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Americanization of Europe The spread of American influences in the economy, military, and culture to Europe Companies such as McDonald’s, Apple, Starbucks, and the Gap have outlets all over Europe Music, movies and television shows from the U.S. have also come to Europe Has been met by some resentment by people who do not want to lose their European culture Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
A Consumer Society Western Europe has enjoyed a vast expansion of consumer goods and services People in Eastern Europe, seeing the success of the West, became discontented and helped bring down communism Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Environmentalism Concerns about pollution grow in the 1970s and 1980s Green Party – an influential political party that started in Germany and was concerned about global warming and pollution Green movement is anti-capitalist and anti- nuclear Chernobyl nuclear disaster in Russia in 1986 raised questions about nuclear power that Europe could not ignore Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Art Since World War II Cultural divisions and the Cold War Tatjiana Yablonskaya –in Bread (1949), showed the realistic propaganda of the Stalinist regime Jackson Pollack – in One (1950), he showed the exuberance and freedom of abstract “drip” painting Rachel Whiteread used the art concept of minimalism (the movement in architecture to remove from an object as many features as possible while retaining the object’s form) in her Nameless Library, which commemorates the 65,000 Austrian Jews killed by Nazi Germany Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Christians of the 20th Century and Today Neo-Orthodoxy – presented by Karl Barth, it reemphasized the transcendence of God and the dependence of humankind on the divine Liberal theology – Paul Tillich, Rudolf Bultmann, John Robinson and C.S. Lewis all regarded religion as a human phenomenon, where divinity is sought in human nature and culture Roman Catholic Reform More liberal ideas in recent times have included Mass celebrated in the vernacular languages and freer relations with other Christian denominations and Judaism Conservative ideas kept – celibacy of priests, prohibition on abortion and birth control, and no women priests Pope John Paul II emphasized the traditionalist doctrine, firm stands against communism and growth of the church in the non- Western world, while emphasizing social justice Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Computer Age Late nineteenth century – the invention of the calculator improves businesses and the cash register appears in the late 1920s First actual computer – Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) – built for ballistics calculations for the U.S. army in 1946 Dates 1960s – invention of the bitmap to cover the screen, the mouse and the microchip 1982 – IBM produces small personal computer 1984 – Apple produces the Macintosh computer for a desktop at home or office and set for commercial sales becomes available Mid-1980s – computer sales boom Mid-1990s to present – the internet boom Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
European Unification European Economic Community – members known as the Common Market first came together in 1957 out of the European Coal and Steel Community to seek the elimination of tariffs, a free flow of capital and labor, and similar wages and benefits for workers of all countries Original six members – (France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg) 1973 – Great Britain (despite protest from France), Ireland and Denmark become members 1982 – Spain, Portugal and Greece apply to join Norway and Sweden refuse European Union – 1993 – Treaty of Maastricht turns the EEC into the European Union with a common currency for twelve of the member nations – the Euro Membership in union rises to twenty-five countries in 2004 Many former Soviet bloc countries need economic aid from the Union Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Discord in the Union Proposed European Constitution of 2004 involved a bill of rights and complex economic and political agreements between nations, transferring considerable power from individual nations to a central power France and the Netherlands defeat the treaty, while Britain postpones voting on it Several factors contribute to the Treaty’s defeat: Gap between European elite and voting public Stagnant economies Small European nations felt ignored by Britain and France Many nations believed the Euro put them at an economic disadvantage Reluctance to cede national sovereignty and authority to a bureaucracy The controversy over possibly admitting a poor, mainly Muslim state in Turkey to the Union Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
New American Leadership and the Financial Crisis Key Events of 2008: Russian invasion of Georgia Election of Barack Obama as President Worldwide financial crisis Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
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