4 Examination Advice General Advice Answer questions to the required degree of accuracy.If a question asks for an exact answer then a decimal approximation is not acceptable.When an exact answer is required, appropriate working must be shown.
5 Examination Advice General Advice When an instruction to use calculus is stated for a question, an appropriate derivative or antiderivative must be shown.Label graphs carefully – coordinates for intercepts and stationary points; equations for asymptotes.Pay attention to detail when sketching graphs.
6 Examination Advice General Advice Marks will not be awarded for questions worth more than one mark if appropriate working is not shown.
7 Examination Advice Notes Pages Well-prepared and organised into topic areas.Prepare general notes for each topic.Prepare specific notes for each section of Examination 2.Include process steps as well as specific examples of questions.
8 Examination Advice Notes Pages Include key steps for using your graphic calculator for specific purposes.Be sure that you know the syntax to use with your calculator (CtlgHelp is a useful APP for the TI-84+)
9 Strategy - Examination 1 Examination AdviceStrategy - Examination 1Use the reading time to carefully plan an approach for the paper.Momentum can be built early in the exam by completing the questions for which you feel the most confident.Read each question carefully and look for key words and constraints.
10 Strategy - Examination 2 Examination AdviceStrategy - Examination 2Use the reading time to plan an approach for the paper.Make sure that you answer each question in the Multiple Choice section. There is no penalty for an incorrect answer.It may be sensible to obtain the “working marks” in the extended answer section before tackling the multiple choice questions.
11 Strategy - Examination 2 Examination AdviceStrategy - Examination 2Some questions require you to work through every multiple-choice option – when this happens don’t panic!!Eliminate responses that you think are incorrect and focus on the remaining ones.Multiple Choice questions generally require only one or two steps – however, you should still expect to do some calculations.
12 Strategy - Examination 2 Examination AdviceStrategy - Examination 2If you find you are spending too much time on a question, leave it and move on to the next.When a question says to “show” that a certain result is true, you can use this information to progress through to the next stage of the question.
14 Question 1where a, b and c are three different positive real numbers. The equation has exactlya) 1 real solutionb) 2 distinct real solutions c) 3 distinct real solutionsd) 4 distinct real solutionse) 5 distinct real solutionsB
15 B Question 2 The range of the function with graph as shown is a) b) c) d)e)B
17 E Question 4 For the equation the sum of the solutions on the interval isa)b)Ec)d)e)
18 B Question 5 What does V.C.A.A. stand for? a) Vice-Chancellors Assessment Authorityb) Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authorityc) Victorian Combined Academic Authorityd) Victorian Certificate of Academic Aptitudee) None of the aboveB
19 The linear factors of the polynomial Question 1The linear factors of the polynomialareANSWER: B
23 Maximal (or implied) Domain The largest possible domain for which the function is definedA function is undefined when:a) The denominator is equal to zeroThe square root of a negative number is present.The expression in a logarithm results in a negative number.
25 Using Transformations When identifying the type of transformation that has been applied to a function it is essential to state each of the following:NATURE – Reflection, Dilation, TranslationMAGNITUDE (or size)DIRECTION
26 1. Translationsa) Parallel to the x-axis – horizontal translation.b) Parallel to the y-axis – vertical translation.To avoid mistakes, let the bracket containing x equal zero and then solve for x.If the solution for x is positive – move the graph x units to the RIGHT.If the solution for x is negative – move the graph x units to the LEFT.
27 2. Dilationsa) Parallel to the y-axis – the dilation factor is the number outside the brackets. This can also be described as a dilation from the x-axis.Parallel to the x-axis – the dilation factor is the reciprocal of the coefficient of x. This can also be described as a dilation from the y-axis.Note: A dilation of a parallel to the y-axis is the same as a dilation ofparallel to the x-axis.
28 3. Reflectionsa) Reflection about the x-axisb) Reflection about the y-axisc) Reflection about both axesd) Reflection about the line
38 Part of the graph of is shown below. a) Sketch the graph of Question 15Part of the graph ofis shown below.a) Sketch the graph of
39 b) Find the set of values of x for which From the graph, solve
40 Composite Functions For the composite function to be defined When the composite functionis defined
41 Investigating Composite Functions Step 1: Complete a Function, Domain, Range (FDR) table.Step 2: Check that the range of g is contained in the domain of f .Step 3: Substitute the function g(x) into the function f (x).Step 4: Remember that:
44 Inverse Functions Key features: The original function must be one-to-oneReflection about the line y = xDomain and range are interchangedIntersections between the graph of the function and its inverse occur on the line y = x
45 To find the equation of an inverse function Step 1: Complete a Function, Domain, Range (FDR) table.Step 2: Interchange x and y in the given equation.Step 3: Transpose this equation to make y the subject.Step 4: Express the answer clearly stating the rule and the domain.
51 Algebra of Functions Sum and Difference of Functions Key features: Points of intersection of the two functions.Points where either graph crosses the x-axisThe dominant function in different parts of the domain.
53 Solving indicial equations Step 1: Use appropriate index laws to reduce both sides of the equation to one term.Step 2: Manipulate the equation so that either the bases or the powers are the same.Step 3: Equate the bases or powers. If this is not possible then take logarithms of both sides to either base 10 or base e.
55 Solving logarithmic equations Step 1: Use the logarithmic laws to reduce the given equation to two terms – one on each side of the equality sign.Step 2: Convert the logarithmic equation to indicial form.Step 3: Manipulate the given equation so that either the bases or the powers are the same.
56 Step 4:. Equate the bases or powers Step 4: Equate the bases or powers. If this is not possible then take logarithms of both sides to either base 10 or base e.Step 5: Check to make sure that the solution obtained does not cause the initial function to be undefined.
61 ANSWER: C Question 32 Dilation by a factor of 2 from the x-axis Reflection about the x-axis
62 Solving Trigonometric Equations Put the expression in the form sin(ax) = BCheck the domain – modify as necessary.Use the CAST diagram to mark the relevant quadrants.Solve the angle as a first quadrant angle.Use symmetry properties to find all solutions in the required domain.Simplify to get x by itself.
73 Question 3Angie notes that 2 out of 10 peaches on her peach tree are spoilt by birds pecking at them. If she randomly picks 30 peaches the probability that exactly 10 of them are spoilt is equal toa)d)b)e)c)D
74 D Question 4 The total area of the shaded region shown is given by a) c)d)De)
75 A Question 5 Which one of the following sets of statements is true? 21andsm<b)>c)d)e)=A
109 Question 52On the interval (a, b) the gradient of g(x) is negative.ANSWER: A
110 Calculating AreaSketch a graph of the function, labelling all x-intercepts.Shade in the region required.Divide the area into parts above the x-axis and parts below the x-axis.Find the integral of each of the separate sections, using the x-intercepts as the terminals of integration.Subtract the negative areas from the positive areas to obtain the total area.
111 Question 53The total area bounded by the curve and the x-axis on the interval [a, c] is given by:ANSWER: D
115 Sketch the curves, locating the points of intersection. MethodSketch the curves, locating the points of intersection.Shade in the required region.If the terminals of integration are not given – use the points of intersection.Check to make sure that the upper curve remains as the upper curve throughout the required region. If this is not the case then the area must be divided into separate sections.Evaluate the area.
116 Find the solution to the equation Question 55Find the solution to the equation
117 b) Use CALCULUS to find the area of the shaded region.
118 Numerical techniques for finding area Question 56ANSWER: D
119 Analysis Question Question 57 Write down the equation in x, the solutions of which give the x-coordinates of the stationary points of the curvea)
125 Discrete Random Variables A discrete random variable takes only distinct or discrete values and nothing in between. Discrete variables are treated using either discrete or binomial distributions. These values are usually obtained by counting.A continuous random variable can take any value within a given domain. These values are usually obtained through measurement of a quantity. Continuous variables are often treated using normal distributions.
130 Markov ChainsA Markov chain is a chain of events for which the probabilities of outcomes or states depend on what has happened previously.Tree diagrams are a useful tool for solving problems.
131 Question 61If it has snowed the day before the probability of snow is 0.6. If it has not snowed on the previous day then the probability of snow is 0.1.If it has snowed on Thursday, what is the probability that it will not snow on the following Saturday?
132 Question 62A bag contains three white ball and seven yellow balls. Three balls are drawn without replacement. The probability that they are all yellow is:ANSWER: D
148 Solving normal distribution problems Draw a diagram, clearly labelling the mean.Shade the region required.Use either the appropriate symmetry properties or a calculator to find the required probabilityRemember that:
149 Question 72Volunteers for a weight loss program have weights which are normally distributed with a mean of 100 kg and a standard deviation of 8 kg.One person is selected at random. The probability that this person’s weight is over 110 kg is approximately
151 Applications of the normal distribution Draw a diagram, clearly shading the region that corresponds to the given probability.Use the symmetry properties of the curve to write down the appropriate z value.Use the inverse normal function to find the required probability and the corresponding z value.Use the relationship tocalculate the required x value.
152 Question 73Black Mountain coffee is sold in packets labeled as being of 250 grams weight. The packing process produces packets whose weight is normally distributed with a standard deviation of 3 grams.In order to guarantee that only 1% of packets are under the labeled weight, the actual mean weight (in grams) would be required to be closest toa) 243 b) 247 c) 250 d) 254 e) 257