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It is a Different Process Project Triage
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Chaos Report
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Chaos Report 34% of projects succeed 15% of project fail 51% of projects are ‘disputed’ So much for the good news
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions What is Project Failure Failure to secure basic project metrics? Failure to secure Key success Factors? Perception or Reality?
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions What is Project Failure Failure to secure basic project metrics Failure to secure Key success Factors Was Apollo 13 a failure?
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions To Qualify for Rescue A project with such issues, essentially imminent failure, to the extent: it is judged not recoverable by the resources of the project team itself, certainly not by any simple application of the extant project delivery strategy of that project
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions It’s a Different Process A project with such issues, essentially imminent failure, to the extent: it is judged not recoverable by the resources of the project team itself, certainly not by any simple application of the extant project delivery strategy of that project In other words: It requires a different process
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Causes of Failure There are many, but don’t just shoot the team. Project failures can come from: Issues in the project delivery organisation Issues in project planning and control Issues in the client organisation
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Typical problems include: Poor scoping Changes in the requirement not linked to scope Failure to appreciate progressive elaboration Absentee champion Structural re-organisation Lack of appropriate resources Overwork of project teams Failure to engage, or retain, key stakeholders Failure to note, share and track assumptions
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Assumptions Mars Climate OrbiterNewtons or Pound Force
Project Triage Cultural Issues leading to Failure
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Cultural Issues leading to Failure Project manager selection Project manager expertise Less experienced PMs tend to focus on areas they know best Organisational Constraints © !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Cultural Issues – Project Manager Project manager selection Don’t recognise difference between project & technical managers Save money by appointing someone at lower rate Give staff opportunity to develop without training or support Restrictive procurement forces selection of whoever is available Project manager expertise Focus on doing not managing Mistakes made by PM due to lack of experience Insufficient project planning Insufficient rigour throughout project Poor stakeholder management Less experienced PMs focus on areas they know Natural tendency is to focus on their area of expertise Difficulty approaching stakeholders Move into comfort zone if under pressure © !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Cultural Issues - Organisational Organisational constraints Resistance to change – Failure to get organisational commitment to project objectives creates significant risk Conflicting stakeholder agendas can stop project from starting. Resolve during planning Stakeholder failure – People fail to deliver for range of reasons. Need monitoring, risk & contingency planning No clear project structures or processes in place, so project & operational staff not able to support project when needed Effective PMs reduce impact of organisational constraints by developing plan to manage this through contingency, building management support or establishing project structures © !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Cultural Issues - Aware of Failure Awareness of project failure PM knows when project in trouble Project team hyperaware of when project in trouble Everyone in project very aware of failure state. There will be some rearranging of project to fix problems before failure occurs Better project governance increases management awareness Whether these groups do something is influenced by culture Raising the alarm Project managers raising the alarm – may require bravery Symptoms visible to others Project not communicating Changing scope Missing milestones or removing/combining project activities Staff working excessive hours, narrowing focus Timing of raising alarm critical to reducing impacts Early corrective action gives rescuing party more options © !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Cultural Issues - Denial Organisation cannot fix something it refuses to accept is broken Managers’ reputations dependent on success, so unwilling to recognise failure. Project pressured to find a way Lack of project understanding If we work extra hard, we can catch up – can make it worse Ignore problem may work with Operations, but projects quickly burn up time, effort & cost Breakdown of corporate communication If limited acceptance of failure, PM & team usually hide problems by ceasing communication or misreporting Unwilling to present bad news – PM raises concerns in bid to get help. Middle management may dilute messages Unwilling to hear bad news – Management refuse to listen to bad tidings & block communication channels © !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007
Project Triage A Rescue Methodology
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Diagnosis The project is significantly behind time and/or cost; and the trend is worsening The project risk profile show a consistent upwards trend The project team and governance cannot reconcile significant project issues The project is on radio silence; the team has stopped communicating Loss of confidence and support of significant stakeholders
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Defining the Root Causes In God we Trust: Everyone else bring data Deming Authorisation and charter for rescue Need for special diagnostics and audit methods Output: Project Audit Report Decision: Scrap Salvage Support
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Establish the Rescue Plan Two parts to the strategy Getting the project back ‘on track’ Re-engagement of ‘normal’ project activities A project plan in its own right Designated resources Designated methods Scope is essential – just rescue or full ownership of project Does the project continue work in parallel with ‘fix’?
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Re-engaging the Baseline Transitional step of re-orientation Baselining and Handover Readiness Assessment Timing Timeliness Don’t dwell in the portal
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Re-instating the Project Plan Re-chartering the original team? Business as usual How much attention to the original problem?
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Celebrating Success ‘It ain’t over till its over’ Yogi Berra
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Celebrating Success ‘It ain’t over till its over’ Yogi Berra
Project Triage Cultural Issues in Rescue
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Cultural Issues in Rescue Management Stakeholder Management Selecting the Rescue Team Defining Project Rescue Vision Organisational Change Management Pitfalls in Project Rescue © !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Cultural Issues - Management Project may be failing due of tendency to keep status quo. Must be understood by rescuers & plan agreed before rescue begins Corporate risk aversion means more willing to recognise structured risk management. Rescue justified on sound risk management thus gains strong management commitment Culture of sunk costs – Provide business case to highlight overall cost of different options © !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Stakeholder Management What collateral damage is acceptable? This affects how project is managed People/Social Financial Political/Reputation Sustainability of the organisation – will they go out of business or be damaged in other ways?
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Selecting Project Rescue Team Selection of rescuing project manager & team crucial Build skills based on strengths of available resources Identify if existing PM or team members will help or hinder. Critical to find out why project failing Relationship between original project team & rescuing team essential. Original team can be part of solution & strong relationship combines local knowledge with fresh start Ensure right operational roles involved to help where no processes or structures in place. Project liaises with operations to balance project delivery & minimise disruption
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Defining Project Rescue Vision Provides strategy for rescue Builds common goal to bring together rescue & original project teams & stakeholders
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Org Change Management Communication critical. Rescuing the project changes its direction & everyone needs to know Management needs to see rescue in control. Communication is key here Deliver small successes to build momentum. Select short-term actions that show way forward & get commitment from project team & influencers
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Pitfalls in Project Rescue Mainly due to negative behaviours that need managing How did project get into trouble? Remove influences or rescue will suffer same fate. Could be People Risks Planning constraints Lack of management support. Not negotiable Project heroics Tendency to rescue by heroic effort Rescuing project manager wants motivated team Ensure people work together, follow rigour & communicate Plan rescue to cover sustainable success of project, stopping it from slipping back
Project Triage Tools and Techniques
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Tools Project Rescue requires specific practice skills But in general, we are applying normal project management methods
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Tools of the Trade ToolApplication Problem Solving Initial problem diagnosis Benefits Management Review or redefinition of project objectives and benefits Business Case Justification for the Rescue Intervention Justification for the Rescue Plan Justification for continuation of the project Stakeholder Analysis/Interviews Reviewing stakeholder values/perceptions Financial Analysis Detailed evaluation of project financials
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Tools of the Trade ToolApplication Quality Audits/Reviews Evaluation of project quality system Risk Analysis Evaluation of current and future risk levels Cause and Effect Analysis Detailed Problem Solving Analysis of Rescue Risk Causes Flowcharting Process Definition Process Fault Finding (current problems) Analysis of Failure points (future risks) Brainstorming Fact finding, issue identification, risk identification
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Tools of the Trade ToolApplication Affinity Diagrams Identifying and collating relationships between disparate issues or events Earned Value Analysis Baselining time and cost status Discounted Cashflow Technique Justification of business investment Project Planning Methods Re-planning the project Conflict Management Relationship management Negotiation Management
© !IntensIT Consulting Pty Ltd 2007 Primal Solutions Conclusion Project Triage/Rescue requires its own approach Cultural and people issues are critical Methodology is logical Early decision on disposal of project Assisted rescue or self rescue Baseline, approval gates and governance Range of standard methods and tools
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