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Day 4 More on Information Design and Theories of human computer interaction.

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1 Day 4 More on Information Design and Theories of human computer interaction

2 Objectives  Learn how to organise content  Understand Norman’s theory of human- computer interaction  Understand Grice’s theory of conversational interaction  Understand implications of the model for user interface design

3 Critical tasks of Information Design  Define the goals of the product  Understand your users  Assess the users’ needs and desires  Create a content list  Organise the content  Produce a content flowchart

4 Organising your content/tasks  You might have a good idea after your research about the content/tasks that will be in your system, but it must now be organised What should have highest priority? How will the user get from one part to the next? Where will one lot of content/tasks go with respect to other content/tasks? What content/tasks should be grouped together?

5 From a list to card sorting  Make a list of all the content/tasks you now expect to have in your product  You can now use the card sorting technique

6 The card sorting technique  video  Uxsort (v )

7 Create a content flow diagram

8 A Simple Website Map

9 Theories of human computer interaction

10 Norman’s 7-stage cycle of HCI

11 Two major implications for a designer  The designer must bridge the gulf of execution Design the system to ease the process of getting from the intention to the execution  The designer must bridge the gulf of evaluation Design the system so that the response after the user has performed an action can be easily interpreted and then evaluated

12 So how do you bridge these gulfs?

13 Norman’s four principles  Norman put forward four design principles that address the problem of bridging the gulfs Make things visible Provide a good conceptual model Use natural mappings Give feedback

14 Make things visible  Ensure that the user, by looking, can tell the state of the device and the alternatives for action

15 Provide a good conceptual model  Ensure the system image is coherent and consistent and reflects the model that underlies the system

16 Use natural mappings  Ensure there is a natural relationship between the look of an object and its function

17 Give feedback  Give the user full and continuous feedback

18 Grice’s theory of conversational interaction  Grice put forward his theory in  The theory was concerned with how people interact during conversations.  Although the theory was developed with human conversations in mind and was formed well before computers became common place, it has relevance today to designing a user interface.

19 Grice’s cooperative principle  Human communication is governed by the Cooperative Principle.  That is, people are expected to be cooperative in a conversation, saying the type of thing that is required, when it is required, given the purpose of the conversation.  Grice put forward four maxims that stem from the Cooperative Principle: the Maxim of Quantity the Maxim of Quality the Maxim of Relevance the Maxim of Manner

20 My “conversation” with the Doc Martin’s site Doc M: Welcome. Fast connection, click here. Me: OK. I click where it says “Click here”. Hmm nothing happens. Oh, there are radio buttons off to the right. (Maxim of Manner breached because it wasn’t clear where you have to click; and the Maxim of Quality too)

21 Continuing on … Doc M: To enter, click on the dot nearest to where you live. Me: Oh, it must send you to information relevant to different locations in the world. Well, Brisbane is a long way from Singapore but it’s the closest so I’ll click on that. But I don’t really want to know about shops in Singapore. Doc M: Here is a lot of information about shoes and Dr. Martens. Me: Weird, this is just shoe styles. Why was I asked to click on the dot nearest to where I live? (Maxim of Relevance breached because being asked where you live seems irrelevant to the user)

22 And more … Doc M: Here’s a shoe, and another, and another, join us, blueprint, here’s another shoe, feet first, we’re all ears, here’s another shoe, and another, feet first, what’s on, store locater, here’s another shoe, feet first, privacy, check out our new product ranges!!! terms and conditions, blueprint, feet first, here’s another shoe. Me: Woh, it seems like you’re throwing a whole bunch of stuff at me but you’re not telling me what to do. (Maxim of Quantity breached because there’s too much information being given for the help it is giving)

23 And finally … Me: Just for the heck of it, I’ll click on “what’s on”. Doc M: News! Dr. Martens is the official Macromedia site of the day. Me: My God! Can this be true or has Grice’s Maxim of Quality been breached!

24 Don Norman video  _rwwEo5YhY&feature=related _rwwEo5YhY&feature=related

25 How do you think you could save a file with this?

26 What do these mean?

27

28

29 The answer (to slide 25) revealed … drag on the thumb mark and then drag a file across


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