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CLEAN AND GREEN FUELS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Narsimha Reddy Kandadi Department of Chemical Engineering Monash University.

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Presentation on theme: "CLEAN AND GREEN FUELS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Narsimha Reddy Kandadi Department of Chemical Engineering Monash University."— Presentation transcript:

1 CLEAN AND GREEN FUELS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Narsimha Reddy Kandadi Department of Chemical Engineering Monash University

2 OUTLINE General issues related to sustainable energy Environmental and pollution problems with current transportation fuels Reformulation of transportation fuels Clean fuel production GTL Fuels and their advantageous characteristics Alternative Gaseous and liquid fuels Synthesis gas/natural gas refinery Fuel issues for fuel cells Issues related to Hydrogen Storage Conclusions

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4 THE DRIVERS TO ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY Problems/ConcernsDriversSolutions Exhaustion of fossil fuels Increasing costsEnergy eficiency Search for alternatives Removal of subsidies Inclusion of “externalities”in the cost of energy Local and regional environmental quality. Global warming Desire to improve quality of air and water Need to avoid climate change Cleaner fossil fuels, filters, catalizers. Reduced use of fossil fuels switch to renewables CO 2 capture. Security of supplyNeed to guarantee low prices and abundant supply Reliance on indigenous energy resources switch to renewables or nuclear SafetyAvoidance major disasters Develop intrinsically safe reactors. Storage of spent nuclear fuel EquityAvoidance of social unrest &humanitarian concerns Policies that stimulate supplying energy services to the poor

5 VEHICULAR POLLUTION Pollution from Automotive Vehicles are responsible for  ~One-third of all AIR POLLUTION  ~50% of SMOG forming VOCs & NO x  >50% of Hazardous Air Pollutants  90% of CO found in urban air 20 pounds of CO 2 emitted every gallon of gasoline burning by the vehicle Low emissions and good fuel economy are both important for the environment

6 IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION ON HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT  WHO Report(1999) on Health costs due to traffic-related pollution in Europe  Every year air pollution from cars causes  300, 000 extra cases of Bronchitis in Children  15, 000 Hospital Admissions for Heart Disease  395, 000 Asthma attacks in Adults and  162, 000 Asthma attacks in Children in each year  Car pollution kills more people than car accidents  Long-term exposure in adults over 30 years age can cause extra 21,000 premature deaths from Respiratory or Heart diseases

7 FUELS DECARBONISATION TRENDS

8 Gasoline Fuel specifications in different countries for 2000 AD S No CharacteristicsCaliforniaUSEUIndia 1Lead, g/l Sulphur, wt ppm Oxygenates All Oxygenates Just Ethers Oxygen, wt%, Max Benzene, max vol% Olefins, Vol% max Aromatics, Vol% Max Rvp, Kpa max

9 ADVANTAGEOUS OXYGENATES The potential benefits of adding oxygenates to gasoline are Less CO emissions Reduced unburned hydrocarbon emissions Decrease in Ozone content in the lower atmospheres of highly polluted areas Environment friendly replacement for TEL and aromatics for Octane requirements for good engine performance FCC volatile olefins with high photochemical reactivity can be converted to ethers which decreases volatility and increases octane content with oxygen

10 FCC GASOLINE ETHERIFICATION WITH ETHANOL WITH NEW BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST Etherification Temp,oC % Olefins conversion % EtOH Conversion Density, g/cc OdourNaphthaPungent ColourColorless Pale yellow

11 VEHICLES WITH NATURAL GAS ~ 800, ,000 vehicles in the world running on natural gas –Russia –Italy –South America –Australia and –North America The market position: capable for fuelling vehicles and refuelling stations at an acceptable level of development The fuel infrastructure may allow the easy transition to hydrogen supply

12 SYNTHESIS GAS REFINERY Clean and Alternative Molecular Fuels

13 EMISSIONS PERFORMANCE OF GTL(F-T) DIESEL FUELS GTL Fuels are far superior to Petroleum derived Diesel GTL fuel characteristics Cetane - 75 Sulphur - ~0 Aromatics - ~0

14 HYDROGEN – IDEAL ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY FUEL Decarbonise the fuel sphere Can be realized the zero emission transportation Can be used in both conventional ICE and Fuel Cells with water as effluent Unique combustion characteristics lean burning with air without NOx –SMOG precursor Avoids the global climate changes as it can’t produce CO2 No particulates and unburnt Hydrocarbons

15 DME AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL Stationary Applications –Power Plants –Diesel Gensets –Ceramic and Glass Industry Transportation –Diesel Engines –CNG Fuel for Fuel Cells

16 DME ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES PURE DME DOES NOT POSE ANY ENVIORNMENTAL ISSUE DUE TO  PHYSICALLY LIKE LPG. LPG INDUSTRY HAS AN OUTSTANDING SAFETY RECORD  T/A OF DME USE AS AN AEROSOL PROPELLANT IS BECAUSE OF ITS ENVIORNMENTALLY BEGING CHARACTERSTICS I.e. oNOT HARMFUL TO OZONE LAYER oREADILY DEGRADES IN THE TROPOSPHERE TO CO 2 AND H 2 O oNON TOXIC oNON CARCINOGENIC oNON TETRAGEN oNON TERATOGEN oNON MUTAGEN oNON CORROSIVE  DISPLAYS A VISIBLE FLAME OVERWIDE RANGE OF AIR FUEL RATIO  HEAVIER THAN AIR HENCE NEEDS SAME HANDLING AND SAFETY CARE AS PROPANE AND LPG

17 HOW EFFICIENT IS OUR CURRENT VEHICLE ?

18 ADVANTAGES OF FUEL CELLS OVER OTHER POWER SOURCES  Environmentally friendly  High power density  High energy conversion efficiency  Operation at low temperatures and pressures  Zero to very low emissions dependent on fuel  Site flexibility  Fuel flexibility  Quiet operation  Cogeneration capability  Responsiveness to load variations SUITABLE FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS, INCLUDING AUTOMOTIVE

19 AUTOMOTIVE FUEL CELL DRIVERS Kyoto agreement requires CO 2 reduction Europe will reduce car CO 2 emissions Aggressive fuel/CO 2 taxes California Zero Emission Vehicle by 2003 Public policy will help build a market for Fuel Cell Vehicles

20 COMPARISON OF EFFICIENCY AUTOMOBILE POWER SYSTEMS

21 HYDROGEN ECONOMY CONCEPTUAL APPROACH

22 FUELS ISSUES FOR FUEL CELLS IN TRANSPORTATION SECTOR

23 PROJECTED FC VEHICLE PERFORMANCE: LIGHT WEIGHT HYBRID VEHICLE

24 FUELS AND PROCESSING STEPS IN FUEL PROCESSOR FOR FUEL CELLS Fuel cell FUEL PROCESSOR Fuel evaporation Syngas generation Water-gas shiftCO clean-up Natural Gas Gasoline Alcohol + O 2 + H 2 O Power H2H °C R-OH (l)  R-OH (g) HC (l)  HC (g) Partial Oxidation Steam Reforming Autothermal Reforming °C HC + H 2 O + O 2  CO, H 2, CO 2, H 2 O High Temperature Medium Temperature Low Temperature °C CO + H 2 O  CO 2 + H 2 Preferential Oxidation Membranes ambient - 70°C CO + O 2  CO 2

25 FUELS FOR FUEL CELL POWERED VEHICLES [Fuel Report by California Energy commission, July’99]

26 PROMISING FUEL PROPERTIES OF METHANOL FOR PEM FUEL CELLS Liquid having high energy density at ambient temperature and pressure, High energy storage capacity Simple molecule Sulfur free Fairly easy to reform into hydrogen rich gas – lower reforming temperature High hydrogen to CO2 ratio in comparison with other processing options Low carbon monoxide yield(CO)

27 MONASH’S FUEL PROCESSOR AND FUEL CELL SYSTEMS The fuel processor with C 1 Fuels and H2 storage for both PEMFC & AFC with major Australian Fuels-syngas, NG. LPG etc. I.COMPACT FUEL REFORMER WITHOUT THE CO CLEANUP STEP MeOH/DME/Methyl formate reforming II.CARBON DIOXIDE FREE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION Catalytic Decomposition of NG & LPG CH 4 = C + 2H 2  H = Kj/mol C 2 H 6 = 2C+ 3 H 2  H = Kj/mol C 3 H 8 = 3C + 4 H 2+  H = Kj/mol nC 4 H 10 = 4C + 5 H 2+  H = Kj/mol Catalytic Reforming of NG & LPG to Aromatics and H2 6CH 4 = C 6 H 6 + 9H 2 3C 2 H 6 = C 6 H H 2 C 3 H 8 = C 6 H H 2 III. NOVEL MATERIALS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE Hybrid Novel Carbon Materials with Metal Hydrides

28 ON-BOARD HYDROGEN STORAGE The challenges of fuelling for fuel cell vehicles The biggest issue is how to provide fuel The space needed to store the fuel on board the vehicle Efficient ways for processing fossil fuels on board must be developed Even though reforming is a gentler process than combustion, it still introduces trace emissions, which will dragged down overall efficiency Efficiency and Technical difficulty – Direct hydrogen vehicles are the most efficient, followed by on-board processor of methanol and then gasoline

29 HYDROGEN INFRASTRUCTURE AND STORAGE

30 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND DISPENSING TARGETS AND STATUS ON – BOARDOFF-BOARD

31 CONCLUSIONS Utility Sustainable energy concepts are critical for global climate change and resource diversification Clean as well as molecular fuels are going to play prominent role to transition to decarbonisation of fuels Synthesis gas will be the feedstock for both clean as well as molecular fuels for both Combustion engines and Fuel Cells C1 oxygenates such as MeOH, DME, Methyl formate can be efficient conventional fuels and source for low temperature hydrogen production by steam reforming CO2 free H2 production fro low temperature fuel cells from NG and lower hydrocarbons have both economic and technical advantages New adsorbents for H2 storage can realize the zero emission concepts


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