3Items to be delivered in Manual Handling Sessions Definition – Manual HandlingOccupational Health, Safety and Welfare ActLegislative actsWorkplace procedures that apply to fire, accidents and emergency situationsIdentify HazardsIdentify RisksDVD on Hazards and RisksPosture and handling techniquesUnderstanding your back and your bodyApplying the principles of body mechanicsPrinciples of Manual HandlingVideo on Manual Handling practical techniquesPractical and Assessment
42.1 Definition – Manual Handling Manual Handling:- means any activity requiring the use of force exerted by a person to lift, lower, push, pull, carry or otherwise move, hold or restrain any person animal or thing.
52.2.1 OHS & W (Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare) Why do we train?Employer’s duties under the act.Employee’s duties under the actLegislative actsHazard’s and risk assessment.
6Employers’ Duties under the OHS & W Act (Section 19) Every employer has a duty to “ensure so far as is reasonably practicable’’ that every employee is safe from injury and risks to health in their working environment. In particular, employers must, so far as is reasonably practicable:
7OHS & W Act (section 19) Provide a safe working environment Provide safe systems of workProvide safe plant and equipmentIdentify, assess and control manual handling hazardsProvide information, instruction, training and supervisionProvide suitable training for managers and supervisorsAddress reported hazardsMonitor health and safety of employeesDevelop OHS &W policies and proceduresConsult with staff re: OHS & W eg manual handlingPlan and implement OHS & W programs
8Employees’ Duties under the OHS & W Act (Section 21) Employees must take reasonable care to protect their own health and safety and the health and safety of others who may be affected by their actions or omissions at workEmployees responsibility for health and safety only extends to things that they have control over. However, employees must co-operate with their employer in ensuring health and safety in the workplace.
9OHS & W Act (Section 21) Maintain own safety and not endanger others Follow policies and proceduresFollow reasonable instructionsUse equipment providedAssist in the identification, assessment and control processReport any incidents or hazardsConsider and provide feedback on OHS & W mattersNot be affected by drugs or alcohol
10Legislative Acts The Occupational Health, Safety & Welfare Act. Approved Codes of Practice made under the Act.The Occupational Health and Safety and Welfare Regulations.* Reference: page 7 of manual handling booklet.
11Workplace Procedures that apply to fire, accidents and emergency situations. Reference: Covered in unit CHOHS302A Participate in safety procedures for direct care work In the Home and Community care Training Package (CHC30202)
12What is a Hazard?A hazard is an present or potential danger, which is visible or not visible to you.The Environment e.g. uneven surfaces, slippery surfaces, dangerous equipment or tasks.Substances e.g. poisons, gases, corrosives.Methods e.g. incorrect lifting procedures or ignoring universal precautions.Or machines e.g. faulty lifting equipment.
13Hazard Reporting System Informal, verbal reports to an immediate supervisorCompletion of specific forms for hazardsAll hazards must be reported immediatelyHandout Hazard Identification Form
14RISK = Probability + Consequence What is a risk?A risk is the probability of a person becoming affected by the danger (hazard) and the severity, damage or cost of that event.RISK = Probability + Consequence
152.2.6 Risk Assessment Actions and movements Where a risk factor has been identified the employer and employee must ensure that an assessment of the risk is undertaken to determine the level of risk involved. There risk factors would need to include:Actions and movementsWorkplace and workstation layoutWorking posture and positionDuration and frequency of Manual HandlingLocation of loads and distances movedWeights and forcesCharacteristics of loads and equipmentWork organisationWork environmentSkills and experiencePersonal characteristicsClothing
162.2.4 Client risk assessment Assess the person’s cognitive ability.Check the nursing care plan for what the individual person requires when being moved e.g. mechanical aids.Assess the person prior to moving to ensure that their condition has not changed.Assess the person’s ability to assist with the move.Assess the implications of the weight of the person.Assess your physical capability of carrying our the task.
17DVD (Hazards And Risks) Now its time for a short DVD explaining hazards and risks in your job, what you need to know and what you need to look for. It will also explain how to report and record them for your clients’ safety, your own safety and for ongoing best practice.
18IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT YOU KNOW YOUR OWN LIMITATIONS AND ALWAYS WORK WITHIN YOUR OWN CAPACITY
19Activity 1 Now its over to you for a fun and interesting exercise. Matching taskIn small groups see if you can match up the different types of hazards and risksHow did we go?
203.1 PostureGood posture, you need to practice. Maintain a straight back at all times. Ensure strong abdominals and back muscles. Power with legs and arms. Wide base. 24 hour back care at all times is essential e.g sleeping.
21What contributes to bad posture? Tight muscles; decreased flexibilityPoor work environmentPoor sitting and standing habitsObesityPregnancyWeak musclesHigh-heeled shoes
22Proper Posture Requirements Good muscle flexibilityNormal motion in the jointsStrong postural musclesA balance of muscles on both sides of the spineAwareness of proper posture which leads to conscious correction
23Driving Posture Place the seat so arms are slightly bent at the elbows Place the seat so that your legs do not push the edge of the car seat down when using pedalsTo support your lower back a rolled up towel can be used
24Activity 2 Posture exercise 1 Sitting in you seat place both feet on the groundPlace your hands on your thighsClose your eyesGently draw in your lower abdominal muscles and holdOpen your eyes and look at classmates posture
25Activity 3 Posture exercise 2 Grab a light book or folder Stand up Place book or folder on your headSlowly walk around the room chanting “no lift, no injury”How long did you manage to keep the book or folder on your head for?
26Handling Techniques (when lifting a load) 1. Keep your neck straight.2. Verify the weight of the load:Test the weight of the load by attempting to shift the load with your foot.If you doubt that the load is within your lifting capacity, ask for assistance.3. Ensure that your muscles are warm and that a lifting activity is not the very first activity of the day:Keep your back straight and bend down at the knees.
27Handling Techniques (when lifting a load) 4. Grip and hold the load as close to the body as possible.5. Raise the load up by keeping your back straight.6. Slowly straightening your legs.7. Shift the weight of the load towards your body.8. Keep the load close to your body throughout the lift.9.Carry the load checking that the pathway in front is clear.
28Handling Techniques (when lowering a load) When placing the load down ensure you keep the load close to your body to protect your back and neck muscles.
29When lowering the load to floor level: Keep your back straight and bend at the knees.Holding the load close to your body place the load down.Stand up keeping your back straight and slowly straightening your legs.
30Activity 4 Your turn Split into 2 groups Lets have a go at lifting, transporting and lowering a box correctlyHow did you go?
31Understanding your back and body The human spine is made up of separate bones called vertebrae which are attached to one another. The spinal column is divided into sections.
32Cervical SpineCervical spine or neck which consists of 7 relatively small bones.
33Thoracic SpineThoracic spine or mid back which consists of 12 bones.
34Lumber SpineLumber spine or low back which consists of 5 large bones.
35SacrumSacrum wedge shaped bone which consists of 4 bones fused together.
36CoccyxCoccyx or tail bone attached to the end of the spine.
37DiscsDiscs are pads made up of a stiff jelly like substance contained in a strong cartilaginous envelope which separate the vertebra from one and another. They are primarily shook absorbers.
38LigamentsLigaments are strong, slightly elastic bands, which join the vertebrae together and assist in supporting the vertebral column.
39TendonsTendons are slightly more elastic than ligaments and connect the muscles to the vertebrae.
40Back muscle structureThe back muscles are attached to the spinal column, pelvis and extremities. They serve to provide additional support to the back and neck. Strong muscles surround the spine and work together to keep the back supported and balanced.
41The Spinal Cord and Nerves The spinal cord begins at the base of the brain and runs down the spine to the lower back.It is protected within the spinal canal; a bony arch formed by each of the vertebral bones.Between every two vertebral bones, two nerves exit the spinal canal. One is on the left and another is on the right.If there is a ruptured disc, it will pinch the nerve.
42Activity 5Discuss in small groups Back Injuries that you or someone you Know have had. For example:How did it impact on your life?How did it impact on your family and friends?Now together lets share our thoughts on back injuries
43Applying the principles of body mechanics Manipulate the centre of gravityPivot on the hipsFollow normal movement patternsCorrectly applying the principles of body mechanics whilst performing Manual Handling is important if you are to minimise the risk of accident or injury.*Reference: Refer to Manual Handling booklet page 40
44Principles Of Manual Handling Identify, read and understand Manual Handling Plan.Prepare for the transfer / procedure.Self and environment.Communicate with client and assistant.Maintain correct (strong) postureMaintain correct (safe) coordinated movement.Ensure that the dignity & privacy, comfort, skin integrity and self-esteem of the client are upheld at all times.* Reference: Refer to pages 42, 43 & 44 of Manual Handling Booklet
45Assisting Client Up / Down Stairs Stand at the side of the client when going up the stairsAsk client to step up with good leg firstStand at the side of the client when going down the stairsAsk the client to step down with the bad leg firstUse rails for extra support* REMEMBER: Good leg to heaven. Bad leg to hell.
46Vacuuming, Sweeping and Mopping Always move your feet in the direction of movementDo not twist your spinePlace hose around your back and hold in close to the side of your waistTransfer your weight from back leg to front leg in a lunging positionMop backwards and forwards (dependant on style of mop)Side to side mopping should involve a dancing approach rather than a twist of the spine (dependant on the style of the mop)
52Practical and Assessment Stand TransferOne personTwo personMechanical Lifter (full lifter)Bed to chairChair to bedMechanical Lifter (stand Lifter)Assist from FloorClient can assistMechanical Lifter
53Practical and Assessment WalkingOne person assistTwo person assistRepositioning in chairHip shuffleSlide sheetCar TransfersAssisting client in a carAssisting client out of carWheelchairsIn and out of car bootUp and down kerb
54Practical and Assessment Bed ManeuversRollingMoving up in bed-slide sheet, otherSitting up in bed- slide sheetSlide sheet direct vs non direct contactLying to sitting (1&2 assistSitting to lying (1&2 assist)