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EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY OF SPECIES AND ORGANIZATIONS 1 Managing Knowledge in Scholarly.

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Presentation on theme: "EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY OF SPECIES AND ORGANIZATIONS 1 Managing Knowledge in Scholarly."— Presentation transcript:

1 EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY OF SPECIES AND ORGANIZATIONS 1 Managing Knowledge in Scholarly Collaborations: eScholarship's implementation of BSCW William Hall National Fellow Australian Centre for Science, Innovation and Society University of Melbourne 10 June, 2008 VERSI eCoffee

2 Slide 2 Overview eScholarship and eResearch not the same and need different support systems Some theoretical background –Information vs knowledge –Knowledge in three worlds (tacit/explicit) –Knowledge processing in scholarly organizations Support systems for collaborative knowledge work Survey and best of breed BSCW demo

3 Slide 3 Who am I? Evolutionary biologist by training –PhD Harvard 1973 –Univ. Melbourne Research Fellow in Genetics years experience with organizational content/knowledge mgmt –Computer literacy education –Documentation manager - computer software house / bank –17½ years with Tenix Defence mainly associated with the $ 7 BN ANZAC Ship Project 10 warships finished on time, on budget, every time –“Retired” in July 2007 to full-time (unfunded) research Since 2000 have studied organization theory and epistemology –Have established an “invisible college” Advised 3 PhDs (100% virtual, 90% virtual, 100% physical) –S. Else, org studies – Denver University International Affairs (2004)S. Else –P. Dalmaris, process improvement – UTS Info Systems Sydney (2006)P. Dalmaris –S. Nousla, tacit KM – RMIT Engineering (2006)S. Nousla Collaborators from (Adelaide, Sydney, USA, France, Italy, Spain) –mostly practitioners –Findings apply to development of scholarly / scientific knowledge

4 Slide 4 Knowledge is “solutions to problems” (Karl Popper) Army IS point of view –Transformation and aggregation processes add value Not generally accepted in KM community –But they cannot even agree on a definition of knowledge! Background – Data, Information, Knowledge eResearch INTELLIGENCE (AI) Artificial Intelligence Documents (CMS) (Knowledge) INFORMATION (data base) SYNTAX WISDOM POWER "INFO WARFARE" AWARENESS INFLUENCE DECISION/ACTION from INTELLIGENCE CONTEXT Unstructured Data/text (not integrated) Documents (CMS) (Knowledge) SYNTAX WISDOM POWER AWARENESS INFLUENCE DECISION/ACTION from INTELLIGENCE CONTEXT Unstructured Data/text (not integrated) eScholarship

5 Slide 5 Background - 3 worlds ontology after Karl Popper World 1 includes physics and dynamics of everything World 2 includes living control information and knowledge World 3 includes persistently codified knowledge (e.g., genetic heritage, electronic and paper documents) Scholarship involves the cycling and sharing of knowledge in transfers and transformations between worlds 2 and 3 After Hall, W.P Managing maintenance knowledge in the context of large engineering projects - Theory and case study. Journal of Information and Knowledge Management, Vol. 2, No. 2 [Corrected version reprinted in Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 1-17].Managing maintenance knowledge in the context of large engineering projects - Theory and case study

6 Slide 6 Background – knowledge processing in orgs. Development and formalization of organizational, scientific, scholarly knowledge involves numerous cycles between living personal knowledge and published “authorized” knowledge as shown in the next figure. Slightly modified from Vines, R., Hall, W.P., Naismith L Exploring the foundations of organisational knowledge: An emergent synthesis grounded in thinking related to evolutionary biology. actKM Conference, Australian National University, Canberra, October 2007 Exploring the foundations of organisational knowledge: An emergent synthesis grounded in thinking related to evolutionary biology

7 Slide 7 Background – knowledge processing in orgs. , seminars, conferences, web pubishing and peer-reviewed publication are all means for developing and transferring formal knowledge in the academic environment All of these processes benefit from a support system (Vines et al. 2007)Vines et al. 2007

8 Slide 8 Support system for large engineering organization Crossbow Validates and integrates/ Normalises data across 15 legacy systems SAIC TeraText Content management AMPS Navy's maint mgmt CSARS Provides corrective feedback from AMPS into supplier/Navy knowledge development activities DESIGN / ENG PRODUCT DATA MANAGEMENT Product Model CAD / Drawing Mgmt Config Mgmt Eng Change Workflow Process Control Doco Revision & Release DOCO CONTENT MANAGEMENT DOCUMENT AUTHORING LSAR DATABASE LOGISTIC ANALYSIS TOOLS (prime) PRODUCT CONFIG MANAGEMENT Product Model Drawing Mgmt Config Mgmt Change Request Workflow Process Control Doco Revision & Release MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT Schedule Resource Reqs Procedures Completion Downtime Resource Usage RECORDING REPORTING ANALYSIS TOOLS (prime) SUPPLY SYSTEM change request config change doco change ECO change effected doco change order released doco change EC / doco change request maintenance history doco server Analysis & optimisation ordersreceipts change task doco change shared systems? data change & Release UPDATE MAINT DATA / PROCEDURE UPDATE CONFIG Navy Systems 15 legacy systems! MRP SYSTEM Plan Fabricate Assemble config changes Hall, W.P., Richards, G., Sarelius, C., Kilpatrick, B Organizational management of project and technical knowledge over fleet lifecycles. Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 5(2):81-95Organizational management of project and technical knowledge over fleet lifecycles

9 Slide 9 Content authoring workflow Client Review/Annotate Release for Delivery Identify Requirement and Create Work Item Supervisor Authors QA/Supervisor Accept Check Out modify metadata line items CMCs triggers update open in FrameMaker+SGML; Check In modify metadata complete check in Author Release for Peer Review View Sign-Off as Reviewed Stage 1 (Draft) Stage 2 (Peer Review) Stage 3 (Rework) Accept Check Out Check In Release for QA Review Annotate Supervisor Sets Peer Review Completion Circulate for Client Review Stage 4 (Client Review) register/link source documents

10 Slide 10 Teratext implementation for ANZAC Ships ASPMIS Delivery Upload Navy supplied files for Validation. Upload ILS DB data. Upload Graphics files. ILS DB Daily Navy validation data Graphics External Data Upload Content Management SIM DCMS Configuration Document Management Process Management ASPMIS files Review Comments, Graphic files, Source Reference Data Document Viewing through WEB browser FrameMaker SGML editor WEB Fill-In Forms WEB Electronic Intray On-Line Validation against Tenix and Navy Supplied Data As provided Managed ObjectsAuthorised ViewerAuthoring Processes Teratext automation (RMIT product) ASPMIS Data Integrity Checks ASPMIS files Configuration, parts data Register source docs artist supplier

11 Slide 11 Academic authoring Peer reviewers Individual Author Collaborating authors Informal reviewers Journal editor Stage 1 Draft observations Source documents - prior knowledge Author (W2) Develop hypothesis/plan (W3) Find & retrieve source documents (W2) Observe & interact with W1 (W3) Print & circulate drafts to collaborators Collaborators (W2/W3) Review, comment, edit, markup Circulate drafts back to author (W3) Author (W2/W3) Collate changes Circulate to collaborators More collaborator comments? Stage 2 Informal Review Collaborating authors Individual Author Reviewers (W2/W3) Review, comment, edit, markup Circulate drafts back to author (W3) Author (W2/W3) Collate comments (W3)Circulate to collaborators Collaborators (W2/W3) Review, comment, edit, markup Author (W2/W3) collate changes More collaborator comments? (W3) Print & submit to publisher Stage 3 Peer Review Collaborating authors Individual Author Editor Assess & circulate to peers (W2/W3) Collate comments Author/Collaborators (W2/W3) revise, print and resubmit to publisher Journal Print Publish Distribute Stage 4 Add to Knowledge base New knowledge document Readers (W3/W2) Read contribution(s) (W3) follow links to prior knowledge Etc. Become authors Academic readers

12 Slide 12 Just like engineers, academics need a support system! Imperatives –Maintain/improve top raking of university –Personal Publish better papers! Publish more papers in less time! Support system requirements –Correspondence management, search & retrieval (threaded discussions) –Collect & share source material (IP / copyright / fair use issues) Acquisition Access control Search, retrieval and concept building –Team building & maintenance –Drafting Access control Version management Workflow Tracking –Linking and annotation –Review management –Web publishing

13 Slide 13 Support system options Teaching-based sytems –MUSE / SAKAI –edna (http://www.edna.edu.au/)http://www.edna.edu.au/ –eCollege (http://www.ecollege.com/index.learn)http://www.ecollege.com/index.learn –Blackboard (http://www.blackboard.com/products/Academic_Suite/index)http://www.blackboard.com/products/Academic_Suite/index –Unimelb LMS (http://www.lms.unimelb.edu.au/staff/guides/)http://www.lms.unimelb.edu.au/staff/guides/ Genuine Web-based enterprise collaboration environments ($ M implementations) –Collaborative engineering products, e.g., Enovia Matrix 1 (http://www.3ds.com/products/enovia/products/enovia-matrixone/products/)http://www.3ds.com/products/enovia/products/enovia-matrixone/products/ –Content management, e.g., EMC²Documentum Platform (http://australia.emc.com/products/category/subcategory/documentum-platform.htm)http://australia.emc.com/products/category/subcategory/documentum-platform.htm –Collaborative Authoring, e.g., XyEnterprise (http://www.xyenterprise.com/products/)http://www.xyenterprise.com/products/ University spun off collaboration environments –CommonGround Publisher (http://www.cgpublisher.com/)http://www.cgpublisher.com/ –Fraunhofer Institute of Technology/OrbiTeam BSCW (Basic System for Collaborative Work) (http://www.bscw.de/english/index.html)http://www.bscw.de/english/index.html –SAIC TeraText / REORIENT (http://www.teratext.com)http://www.teratext.com Based on joint UoM/RMIT research, commercialized by RMIT Front-end issues

14 Slide 14 BSCW as eScholarship support system End user capabilities –100% web-based –password secured access (authentication) role based access rights –document oriented functions central document storage, comfortable document upload via integrated upload clients tagged and metadata indexing full content indexing with SWISH++ or Microsoft Indexing Service (must be enabled) document version management and locking mechanisms integration of desktop applications via WebDAV direct editing of web and office documents synchronization of offline documents annotations and ratings document distribution

15 Slide 15 BSCW as eScholarship support system (2) End user capabilities (cont.) –Collaboration functions circulation folders for sequential coordinated access to documents user defined workflows for task coordination task calendars scheduling for re-submission of documents full time planning/project management (extra cost) –Social facilitation blogs and mini websites indication of online presence of other workspaces members personal and group calendars shared contact folders import and export of contacts and appointments synchronization of contacts and appointments with MS Outlook (extra cost) reminder service for appointments polls and discussion forums moderated public folders

16 Slide 16 BSCW as eScholarship support system (3) System administrator features: –support for multiple server platforms –easy to install and maintain –minimal administrative effort –cost efficient deployment –application programming interface –web-based interface for most administrative features –comprehensive set of command line tools for administration –optional configuration of user storage allocation –SSL and LDAP support –compatible with existing single sign-on infrastructure –authentication with X.509 client certificates

17 Slide 17 BSCW LIVE DEMO TOMOK Project in MUSE (https://muse.unimelb.edu.au) (https://muse.unimelb.edu.au) TOMOK area in BSCW (http://bscw.otok.esrc.unimelb.edu.au/bscw/bscw.cgi/320)http://bscw.otok.esrc.unimelb.edu.au/bscw/bscw.cgi/320

18 Slide 18 Concept of annotation Explicit and implicit links encode contextual knowledge Links are 2-way connections Annotations are the key to converting implicit contextual knowledge to codified explicit knowledge C ONTENT MANAGEMENT REPOSITORY ANNOTATION METADATA PRIMARY LINK ANNOTATION TEXT SECONDARY LINKS ANNOTATION METADATA PRIMARY LINK ANNOTATION TEXT SECONDARY LINKS SOURCE REGISTRY PRIMARY DOCUMENT METADATA CONTENT PRIMARY OBJECTS (i.e., ) PRIMARY OBJECTS (i.e., ) 1:1 Document element (i.e., ) PRIMARY OBJECTS (i.e., ) PRIMARY OBJECTS (i.e., ) PRIMARY OBJECTS (i.e., ) 0:many OTHER DELIVERABLES AND SOURCE DOCUMENTS SOURCE REPOSITORY ANNOTATION METADATA PRIMARY LINK ANNOTATION TEXT SECONDARY LINKS Document element (i.e., )

19 Slide 19 Author annotations (Tenix proprietary) Select source registry items to include with the annotation Capture author knowledge Create 2-way links between source data and deliverable Explain/qualify reference use

20 Slide 20 Using the Source Registry Document tracking metadata Binary copy of document can be preserved in source repository Extensions may provide to launch appropriate viewer Annotation explains source use 2-way links! –Detect source changes –Where used reports show potentially affected documents

21 Slide 21 Conclusion BSCW as a standalone tool BSCW as the front end to an integrated environment (e.g., BSCW + TeraText) eScholarship project for major grant funding eScholarship support system potentially able to be marketed to universities and industrial research instutions worldwide


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