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How do we classify consonants?How do we make vowels? Prof A. Elhaloui
Pharyngeal voiceless ћ ع Pharynx voiced
φ g η m p n b k x v β f P M V labiodental bilabial bilabial alveolarvelar M φ g η m p n b k x v β f oral fricative oral stop nasal stop oral stop V voiceless voiceless voiced voiceless voiced voiced
voiced voiced voiced lateralBi-labial Labiodental Inter-dental alveolar Alveopalatal palatal velar glottal pharyngeal Oral stop P b t d k g ʔ Nasal Fricative m φ β f v θ ð n š Ž ñ X h ћ ʕ Affricate č Ĵ Liquid glide l r j w ʍ voiceless voiced labial anterior coronals voiceless voiced voiceless voiced lateral Non-lateral
How do we produce vowels?By raising or lowering the tongue By retracting or advancing the tongue By spreading or rounding the lips By tensing or untensing the mouth
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