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Community Business Partnerships for Early Child Development (ECD)

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1 Community Business Partnerships for Early Child Development (ECD)
ARACY Access Grid Community Business Partnerships for Early Child Development (ECD) Closing the Gap Between What We Know and What We Do This presentation was given on February 20, 2008. By J. Fraser Mustard Founding Chairman The Council for Early Child Development February 20, 2008

2 Why the Gap Lack of understanding. Beliefs and culture.
07-183 Why the Gap Lack of understanding. Beliefs and culture. Social and economic factors. Cost of quality ECD programs. The role of the state (the child does not choose its parents). Professional silos (prevention vs. treatment).

3 “The rates and types of problems that we are currently seeing in our children and youth are unprecedented, complex problems that require innovative solutions.” Fiona Stanley

4 Presentation Part 1: The Evolutionary History of Human Beings
06-130 Presentation Part 1: The Evolutionary History of Human Beings Part 2: Developmental Neurobiology Part 3: The Evidence about ECD Part 4: Early Child Development and Parenting Centres – Community Business Partnerships Part 5: Outcome Measures Part 6: Socioeconomic Considerations – Business Community Partnerships The talk will be in six parts. It will begin with a brief look at the evolutionary history and close with what could happen if we do not start now investing in the health, well-being, and competence of the future generation. Parts 2, 3, 4, and 5 will outline how to do this. This is a major challenge for all countries including Latin American countries.

5 The Evolutionary History of
03-049 The Evolutionary History of Human Beings 200, 000 Years 10, 000 Years – Agricultural Revolution -- Civilization Experiments 3.000 to Years – Written Language & Alphabet With the Agricultural Revolution 10,000 years ago, humans started their experiments in civilizations years ago we learned how to print books which enhanced our ability to communicate with each other. For democratic countries to work, that led to attempts to improve literacy and establish public education. We still have a long way to go. It is difficult to communicate within countries and between countries. How can we cope with the challenges of the 21st century if we do not improve the competence and literacy of all populations. 600 Years – Books 50 Years – Electronic Media

6 Agricultural Revolution –
05-143 Agricultural Revolution – 10,000 years ago Transition from hunter-gatherer societies to our experiments in civilization. Short History of Progress Wright 2004 Wright, in the “Short History of Progress” [CBC Massey Lectures, 2004] describes our transition from hunter gatherer societies beginning 10,000 years ago to what he describes as our “continuing experiments with civilization”. As the knowledge base and technologies have increased, we have been able to establish, in the last 200 years, in many parts of the world, reasonably healthy, competent, stable, prosperous democratic communities. Much of this development has taken place in the 20th century.

7  The Growth of the World Population and
01-002 The Growth of the World Population and 6 Some Major Events in the History of Technology Exponential Knowledge and 4 Technology Growth Population (x 109) 2 Beginning of Industrial Fogel, an economic historian (Nobel Prize in Economics) at the University of Chicago, was interested in how our experiments in civilization have improved population health. This chart from Fogel’s work shows that until about 250 years ago, the population of human beings on the planet was small. The sharp rise in the number of human beings on the planet began at the time of the Industrial Revolution. Fogel, in his work, found in examination of the records in a number of Western countries, that as mortality rates dropped, the mean heights of the population increased. He concluded that since height is a product of genetics and nutrition in childhood, that this rise in population was largely due to better conditions for young children. He also points out in his work that the growth in new knowledge and technologies has, since the Industrial Revolution, been exponential. This has clearly been a major factor in establishing populations that are not only healthy, but are increasingly competent in respect to the use of the new knowledge and resulting technologies for both good and bad developments. Revolution 1st Agricultural Printing Press Revolution 9BC 5BC 3BC 1BC 1AD 2AD Year (x 103) Robert W. Fogel. “Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology”, April 1994

8 21st Century / Changes Exponential growth in knowledge and technology
05-144 21st Century / Changes Exponential growth in knowledge and technology Population growth, demographics (aging populations), migration and refugees Changes in local and international economies Climate change and resource constraints Developmental neuroscience In this century we face global challenges on a scale never experienced by human beings in previous centuries. The population dynamics are producing major changes in many societies. Among the factors are; migration, refugees from inhospitable societies, and in Western countries, aging populations. In addition, we are trying to cope with the effects of an increasingly consumer society on the climate, the availability of energy resources, food, and water. All countries are trying to meet these challenges in the 21st century with institutions formed in the 20th century that are striving to function in an increasingly globalized world in the 21st century.

9 The Economist The Search for Talent Why It’s Getting Harder to Find –
06-107 The Economist The Search for Talent Why It’s Getting Harder to Find – Business and Community The Economist, October 7, 2006

10 The Importance of Neuroscience
07-003 Economist Magazine The Importance of Neuroscience September 21, 2006 – Learning Without Learning (Epigenetics) October 7, 2006 – A Survey of Talent December 23, 2006 – A Survey of the Brain June 14, 2007 – RNA - Really New Advances (microRNA)

11 PART 2 DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY

12 Health Learning Behaviour
03-080 Experience-Based Brain development in the early years of life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life: Health The exponential growth in knowledge from the neurosciences about the development of the brain and related biological pathways has provided clear evidence as to how experience in early life affects the development of the brain and biological pathways. Experience-based brain development in the early years of life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect, throughout life, health [physical and mental], learning and behaviour. Thus, experience in the early years of life can set trajectories that affect health, well-being and competence for life. Learning Behaviour

13 03-013 This slide shows what the brain looks like if we remove part of the skull. It is a jelly-like mass composed of billions of nerve cells [neurons] and glial cells. A key neuroscience question is how the billions of neurons differentiate for their function and connect with each other through synapse formation to form the neurological pathways that make it possible for humans to respond to have the competence to create prosperous, sustainable, tolerant, stable, cultured, non-violent, democratic communities. The Hostage Brain , Bruce S. McEwen and Harold M. Schmeck, Jr., 1994.

14 SIGNAL-SENDING NEURON
04-039 Two Neurons RECIPIENT NEURON Axon Synapse This slide shows the basic anatomic structure of the brain. These are two neurons communicating with each other. The dark blob in the centre of each neuron contains the nucleus which has the DNA that through protein synthesis controls the structure and function of the neurons. Since all the brain cells have the same DNA composition, there has to be biological pathways by which the specific DNA function for each neuron is switched on. In order to communicate with other neurons and form neural networks, neurons connect with each other at junctions called synapses. The strength of these junctions is influenced by experience and stimulation of genetic pathways. Repeated use leads to strong connections. If the neurons are under-used, the connections are lost (this process is often referred to as the wiring and sculpting of the brain). SIGNAL-SENDING NEURON Dendrite

15 04-042 SENSING PATHWAYS

16 Sound Touch Vision Proprioception Smell Taste 04-212 Neal Halfon
Stimulation of brain development is heavily dependent upon interaction between the child and the adult. The sensing pathways that have a major role in the development of the brain are shown on this slide. Thus, how the mother responds to signals from the child will be influencing how the child’s brain develops. Neal Halfon

17 Vision and Hearing Critical Periods
03-079 Vision and Hearing Critical Periods Eye cataracts at birth prevent normal development of vision neurons in the occipital cortex (Hubel and Wiesel) Cochlear defects at birth and middle ear infections in infants impair hearing and language development (Rauschecker and O’Donoghue, Fiona Stanley) The breakthrough in understanding in how stimuli from sensing organs in early life affect the differentiation and function of sensing neurons comes from the work of Hubel and Wiesel. They found that children born with cataracts in their eyes would not develop normal vision when the cataracts are removed later in life. If the cataracts were removed early, vision development is normal. In adults, removal of cataracts restores normal vision quickly. Extensive work in this field has shown that signals from the retina must reach the neurons in the part of the brain responsible for vision [occipital cortex] early in life. This causes activation of the genetic pathways involved in the differentiation and function of the neurons for vision. The response of the brain to poor input from one eye in early life is adaptive in that the nervous system alters its circuitry so that it differentially processes input from the superior eye. There is an inability of this circuit to recover normal architecture and function after the end of the sensitive period, even when input from the disadvantaged eye is restored. This characteristic underscores the critical importance of early experience (stimulation) for the development of the neurons involved in vision. We now also know that the neurons in the part of the brain responsible for sounds are also sensitive to the effects of sound on the differentiation of the auditory neurons. It seems that other neurons that have special functions in terms of signals from the sensing pathway such as touch probably have a critical period for differentiation in early life.

18 07-123 Brain Pathways “Higher levels of brain circuits depend on precise, reliable information from lower levels in order to accomplish their function. Sensitive periods for development of lower level circuits ends early in life. High level circuits remain plastic for a longer period.” Knudsen 2004

19 Synaptic Density At Birth 6 Years Old 14 Years Old 03-012
Detailed analysis of the patterns of nerve connection that form from birth to age 14 have been carried out. This slide which comes from the work of Huttenlocher shows the connections amongst the neurons at birth is not intense but that by the age of 6 the connection density is considerable. By the age of 14, the connection pattern is still greater than at birth but is less intense. The weak pathways have been cut out. This process is referred to as the wiring and sculpting of the brain. The wiring of neurons in the brain is hugely influenced by stimulation and the use of these neuron pathways. Thus, as you age, pathways that are not intensely used will disappear. What this evidence does show you is that the early period of life has a significant effect on the wiring and sculpting of the brain. Rethinking the Brain, Families and Work Institute, Rima Shore, 1997.

20 Human Brain Development – Language and Cognition
01-003 Human Brain Development – Language and Cognition Sensing Language Pathways Higher (vision, hearing) Cognitive Function This slide prepared by Chuck Nelson shows that the development of the sensing pathways for vision, hearing, touch and other pathways, begins before birth and is largely finished by the time a child is four years old. The development of these sensing pathways is important for the development of language which starts after the sensing pathways for sound and vision get established. It is of interest that the basic capability for language is largely set by four years of age. Higher cognitive functions, which is where education programs have their major affect, are built upon the neural pathways that are started earlier. In the hierarchies of neural circuits that support complex behaviour, there are sensitive periods for circuits at lower levels in the hierarchy. These pathways which perform more fundamental computations, tends to close before those for circuits at higher levels form. This sequencing of sensitive periods is logical, because higher levels in a hierarchy depend on precise and reliable information from lower levels in order to accomplish their functions (i.e., early learning begets later learning, and skills beget skills). Thus, experience-dependent shaping of high-level circuits depends on the quality of the information provided by lower level circuits, and the shaping of high-level circuits cannot be completed until the computations carried out by lower-level circuits are stable and reliable. The sensitive periods for most lower-level circuits end relatively early in life. In contrast, sensitive periods for some high-level circuits remain open for a longer period. This may be a reason as to why with proper treatment of dyslexics, normal brain pathways can be established. -6 -3 3 6 9 1 4 8 12 16 Months Years Conception AGE C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000.

21 Early Child Development and Language
04-200 Early Child Development and Language Starts early – first 7 months Sets capability for mastering multiple languages Sets literacy and language trajectories

22 Levels of Literacy: A Reflection of ECD
08-022 Levels of Literacy: A Reflection of ECD Level 1: indicates persons with very poor skills. Level 2: people can deal with material that is simple. Level 3: is considered a suitable minimum for coping with the demands of everyday life. Level 4: people who demonstrate command of higher-order processing skills. One way of examining learning is the capability of the population in literacy. The new assessments developed by the OECD in collaboration with Statistics Canada provide some interesting population comparisons. This has been used to measure the distribution of literacy capability in developed and developing countries. The measurements that are set in five levels of performance are shown on this slide. Individuals who can read a prescription but do not understand it, are placed in category 1; individuals with some understanding, are placed in category 2; and individuals who can read and are excellent in their understanding, are placed in category 5. Level 5: competence in sophisticated reading tasks, managing information and critical thinking skills.

23 Socioeconomic Gradients for Adult Document Literacy Scores
06-114 Mean Scores 350 310 Intern’l Mean U.S. 270 Canada Australia 230 This chart from the OECD report (2000) on literacy, ages 16 to 65 years, in developed countries shows that if you plot literacy competence of a population against parents’ level of education, the mean values for each individual in relation to parents’ education are a gradient. Canada and Australia have more than one-third of their population below the OECD International Mean for developed countries. The gradients for Sweden and Finland’s populations do not fall below the International Mean. It is clear that the population in Sweden and Finland have more equity in literacy than Canada, Australia, and the United States. Obviously, these three countries could establish more equity in literacy competence. In contrast, Chile’s (a developing country), gradient values are below the international mean for developed countries. Sweden 190 Finland Chile 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 Parents’ Education (years) OECD, 2000

24 Literacy Levels for the Total Population Ages 16 to 65 – USA
05-178 Literacy Levels for the Total Population Ages 16 to 65 – USA Prose Document Quantitative Percent Level NALS, p. 17, 2002

25 05-173 Literacy Levels by Physical, Mental or Other Health Conditions – USA (Quantitative) Health Problems Mental or Emotional Problems Long-term Illness Percent Level NALS, p. 44, 2002

26 Sociocultural Gradients for Language Cuba Scores in Latin America
00-042 Sociocultural 360 Gradients for Language Cuba Scores in 320 Latin America Argentina 280 Chile Language Score Brazil Colombia 240 Mexico This study by Willms and colleagues (UNESCO) of Latin American countries shows that Cuba has a much better performance than other Latin American countries (school children). The key question that comes from these data is, are the Cuban results different from those of Chile, Brazil, and Colombia because of the education system, the wealth of these societies, or investment in mothers and children? 200 1 4 8 12 16 Parents' Education (Years)

27 Allostasis & Allostatic Load
07-105 Allostasis & Allostatic Load (Stress) Limbic HPA Pathway

28 Limbic HPA Pathway - Stress
05-212 Limbic HPA Pathway - Stress Cortisol – Over Production Behaviour, depression, diabetes, malnutrition, cardiovascular disease, memory, immune system, drug and alcohol addiction Cortisol – Under Production Chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, immune system (autoimmune disorders) rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, asthma Response to stress every day is largely controlled by the pathways that involve the amygdala, the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland and the hippocampus. The response to this pathway affects the sterol levels in the blood every day. Cortisol affects the cells in tissues throughout the body including the brain. Over production is associated with a variety of physical and mental health problems, behaviour, and memory. Under production is associated with various disorders including the immune system and chronic fatigue syndrome.

29 - - + + Amygdala Hippocampus Sensory Stimulus Thalamus Cortex Cortisol
03-002 Thalamus Cortex Amygdala Hippocampus - - + + Hypothalamus PVN Cortisol Cortisol CRF This slide shows how if the stimuli are from emotional stimuli coming in through the sensing pathways [vision, sound, touch, etc.] are threatening, the thalamus can through the amygdala stimulate the hypothalamus to stimulate through CRF the pituitary gland at the base of the brain to release ACTH which stimulates the adrenal gland on the kidneys to release cortisol and the autonomic nervous system. Cortisol affects all the tissues in the body from muscles to the brain and thus has a powerful affect on both our neurological and physical functions. Excess cortisol can be damaging to tissues. Cortisol also affects the hippocampus which is a structure related to long-term memory and behaviour that influences the prefrontal cortex. Cortisol’s affect on the hippocampus has the tendency to shut down the stimulus to the hypothalamus. In contrast, cortisol’s affect on the amygdala is to reinforce the affect of the emotional stimulus on the hypothalamus. This can be considered to be a biological thermostat. McEwen refers to this complex function which affects our everyday life as allostasis. The stress pathway involves the autonomic nervous system (ANS) (McEwen, 2002; Sapolsky, 2003). This produces in contrast to the LHPA pathway, the quick reaction to stress. The hormones released by stressful stimuli work at different speeds. Epinephrine (adrenaline) works quickly while cortisol’s (a glucocorticoid) action is slower. The amygdala plays a major role in the response to stress through the autonomic nervous system (epinephrine) and the cortico releasing factor (CRF) pathways. How the neurons in these pathways function can have major effects on physical and mental health and behaviour. PIT ACTH Adrenal Cortex LeDoux, Synaptic Self

30 Stress Pathway and Sensory Stimuli
05-213 Stress Pathway and Sensory Stimuli Touch in the Early Period is Critical Rats – Mothers licking pups (High versus Low Grooming) Monkeys – Peer vs mother rearing Humans - Attachment Touch is a sensing pathway that has a major effect on the development and function of the stress pathway. This process probably begins in utero and certainly is profoundly affected by touch during the infant and toddler period. The weight of the evidence is that touch in the early years of life sets the function of the stress pathway.

31 08-014 Epigenetics The process by which normal gene expression is altered by experience. Genotype vs Phenotype

32 Hippocampal GR(17) Region 16 (5’ NGFI-A RE) Methylation Timeline
05-059 Hippocampal GR(17) Region 16 (5’ NGFI-A RE) Methylation Timeline 1.2 0.8 Licking Low Mean C-Methylation 0.4 This slide shows from the work of Szyf and Meaney that the gene for the glucocorticoid receptor is shut down by methylation in the rat pups that are not intensely licked in the first six days and that this effect persists into adult life. Thus, the expression of normal DNA is being affected by maternal behaviour in the post natal behaviour. This explains how stress reactivity can be influenced by maternal care in early life. Licking High Embryo Day 20 Birth Day 1 Pup Day 6 Weaning Day 21 Adult Day 90 Age M. Szyf

33 Serotonin Transporter Gene Experience in Early Life - Depression
Age 26 03-089 Depression Risk .70 S = Short Allele L = Long Allele SS .50 SL We now better understand the dynamics between genes, experience and gene expression (epigenetics). This slide shows the evidence concerning the serotonin transporter gene function, the hippocampus prefrontal brain interaction, and the risk for depression in adult life. These data by Caspi and colleagues are from the longitudinal study of the Dunedin birth cohort in New Zealand (Caspi et al. Influence of life stress on depression : moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT Gene. Science, vol 301, July 18, 2003). Similar observations have also been provided from studies of rhesus macaque monkeys. Poor treatment of monkeys or humans when they are young can lead to effects on the serotonin transporter gene. Those with the short allele for the serotonin transporter gene, if they are maltreated when they are young, their serotonin pathway in adult life is altered (inadequate serotonin levels) and their risk of depression as adults is greatly increased. If they are well nurtured when they are young, their risk for depression in adult life is the same as those with the long alleles. Individuals with the long alleles are resistant to the effects of poor nurturing (resilient). This is evidence from humans and monkeys about the effects of early experience on brain function and mental problems in adult life and how the interaction between experience and gene function is probably related to epigenetic effects. Since mental health problems such as depression are a significant cost to society, it is quite clear that investment to improve early child development in our society should be an important public health measure. The costs of treating depression and its social costs are probably greater than the costs of improving the conditions for quality early child development. We now know that maltreatment of young children can affect brain development in the early years and that this can have long-term effects. LL .30 No Abuse Moderate Abuse Severe Abuse Early Childhood A. Caspi, Science, 18 July 2003, Vol 301.

34 Early Experience and Brain Architecture and Function
07-001 Affects gene expression and neural pathways Shapes emotion, regulates temperament and social development Shapes perceptual and cognitive ability Shapes physical and mental health and behaviour in adult life Shapes physical activity (e.g. skiing, swimming, etc.) Shapes language and literacy capability

35 ECD and HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
THE EVIDENCE ABOUT ECD and HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

36 08-015 Pregnancy and Infancy Nutrition (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) Toxic substances – tobacco, alcohol and drugs Sensing pathways and breastfeeding Infections (pre- and post-natal)

37 Romanian Adoption Project
05-115 Romanian Adoption Project Scores at 10.5 Years CB EA RO IQ Language Score Behaviour 13% 9% 43% CB - Canadian Born – middle class families EA - Early Adopted – middle class families RO - Romanian Orphanage – middle class families L. Le Mare

38 08-010 Romania – BEIP Project The cognitive outcome of children who remained in the orphanages was markedly below that of non orphanage children and children taken out of the orphanage and placed in foster care. Nelson et al Science, v. 318

39 1958 British Birth Cohort Age 45
06-003 1958 British Birth Cohort Age 45 Cortisol pathway response in adult correlates with ECD. Children with poor ECD have dysfunctional cortisol secretion patterns at age 45. Power and Hertzman

40 Adult Health Odds - Ratios 1 2 3 4
04-006 ECD Swedish Longitudinal Study and Adult Health Adverse Early Child Development* 1 2 3 4 (None) (Several) Adult Health Odds - Ratios General Physical 1 1.39 1.54 2.08 2.66 Circulatory 1 1.56 1.53 2.91 7.76 Mental 1 1.78 2.05 3.76 10.27 * Economic, family size, broken family and family dissention Lundberg, Soc. Sci. Med, Vol. 36, No. 8, 1993

41 Abecedarian Study – Reading
04-153 Abecedarian Study – Reading Effect Size Special Primary Grades Preschool (4 mths to School) Preschool & Special Primary Grades 1.2 0.8 0.4 Age 8 Age 12 Age 15 Age 21 Age at Testing

42 EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENTING CENTRES

43 Early Child Development
06-001 Success by Ten Early Child Development Intervene early Intervene often Intervene effectively Ludwig and Sawhill, two economists at the Brookings Institution in Washington have recently reviewed all the evidence about early child development in the United States. They have concluded that to ensure quality early child development programs should begin early, there should be quality brain stimulation through play-based learning and adult interaction daily and that the programs should be effective for brain development. Ludwig and Sawhill, Brookings Institution

44 What Provides the Best Results?
07-055 What Provides the Best Results? Centre Based Programs that: Start Early Involve Parents Home Visiting Qualified Staff in Neuroscience and Development This slide summarizes the key components of a centre-based early child development and parenting program.

45 Source of Brain Stimulation
99-004 Source of Brain Stimulation parent-oriented child-oriented age 1 2 3 4 5 6 Components of Early Childhood Development and Parenting Centres: ECD & care (parental and non-parental) arrangements Our key recommendation to the government of Ontario (Early Years Study, McCain and Mustard, 1999) was that they should establish early child development and parenting centres as part of the primary schools throughout the province. This chart shows the input in the different stages of brain development including the in utero period. Parents, particularly the mother, have the major influence on the in utero period and first year of life. Both parents have a significant effect before the children enter the school system but by the age of two, child-child interaction becomes important. The implications of this are, by involving the parents early (including the in utero period) one can achieve improved parenting by having the parents involved in the work of the centre. There is a significant public policy issue here in that mothers, after the child is born, should have one years leave to work with their child at the centre. As the children become older, both parents should work at the centre for a minimum of one day a week until the child is about three years of age. This is a crucial period of child development and parents can learn parenting skills in respect to early child development by being involved at the centre. This then allows them to carry on with the programs with the child in their home. The centres should provide very high quality early child development programs and should be set up to provide non parental care after the first year. The strategy for good early child development requires all participants to know that play-based learning is actually a form of problem-based learning. Thus, the play programs should be based on the principle of problem-based learning. The centres should have access to the various resources that are important in early child development. The centres should also integrate with them all prenatal and post natal support programs such as are delivered through public health and other initiatives. Finally, the centres should have sound nutrition programs and be able to mobilize support for families that have inadequate resources to sustain proper nutrition for their children. In Canada, we estimated that the cost per child per year will be the same as the cost per child in our public education system (The Early Years Study Three Years Later, McCain and Mustard, 2002). Although this will be a substantial increase in public expenditure, the return to the individual and society of these programs will, over time, more than cover the cost of the investment. Since early child development affects health, learning, and behaviour, it is best that this initiative not be considered an education program only. It is, in effect, an investment in human development in which education is a part. Play-based learning Resources Prenatal & postnatal supports Nutrition programs

46 Early Child Development
05-029 Early Child Development and Parenting Centres Offer from conception to school entry Provide support for parents Learn parenting by doing Provide non-parental care Link to and integrate with primary schools Detect development problems early This slide illustrates what good early child development and parenting centres should provide and their linkage to primary schools.

47 Recommendations to Involve
05-027 Recommendations to Involve The Private Sector Encourage private sector to give priority to community-based early child development and parenting centres Parental leave policies Establish incentives to build public-private sector partnerships

48 07-080 07-129 Parental Leave Provide 18 months parental leave with income support, followed by one day weekly leave for both parents until age three to be involved in the Early Child Development & Parenting Centre.

49 Local school authorities
Chaos Early intervention Health Education Family support Social services Local school authorities Public health Munici-palities Community services Parks & recreation Early child development programs are divided into distinct streams: Kindergarten; child care; public health; early identification and intervention; and family supports. Although each has the prime goal of promoting the healthy development of children during their formative years, they operate under separate legislative mandates and with varying levels of public funding. A Fragile Patchwork of Programs Across Canada, early childhood programs fail to respond adequately to the needs of modern families or the new science documenting the importance of early childhood experiences to later health and well-being. In every region of the country parents confront the consequences. Nowhere are there enough programs to meet demand. For families with non-traditional work hours or living in rural and isolated communities, services are almost non-existent. Quality is questionable, yet programs are often too expensive for most families to afford. Public financial support is inadequate and unstable. The result is a patchwork service of poorly resourced, stand-alone service providers, ill-equipped to meet the demands placed on them, and vulnerable to changing political winds. Parallel streams impede, rather than enhance, access for families. Margaret McCain identified the problem during consultations for the Early Years Study[i]: “Most communities could name a long list of early childhood programs but overlapping mandates, disjointed service hours and eligibility barriers left many parents unaware of what services were available or what they offered.”[ii] The YWCA’s audit[iii] of early childhood programs in four diverse communities (rural, large urban, suburban and a mid-size town) revealed similar challenges. 10 McCain & Mustard 1999 [ii] Atkinson Charitable Foundation, 2004 12 Mayer & Fahreen, 2006. Parenting centres Kindergartens Preschools Children’s mental health centres Child care

50 Barriers to Implementing ECDP Programs
04-034 Barriers to Implementing ECDP Programs Economics Lack of understanding (government, public and professional) The state as a nanny No commitment to equality

51 Cost to Individuals and Poor Early Child Development (estimates)
Canadian Society of Poor Early Child Development (estimates) 07-158 Crime $120 Billion/year Mental Health $100 Billion/year Behaviour and Drug Use Australia $ 35/Billion/year Substance Abuse

52 08-033 The Brookings Institution in the US projects said that a high quality universal preschool policy would boost the size of the US economy by US$270 Billion by 2050 and by over US$2 Trillion by 2080. K. Rudd, New Leadership, 2007

53 Cost of ECD-P Centres (Pregnancy to Grade 1) Age 0 to 6 Population
07-157 Cost of ECD-P Centres (Pregnancy to Grade 1) Age 0 to 6 Population Universal (2,500,000 children) Cost $18.5 Billion (1.5% of GDP) Present Expenditure 0.25% of GDP

54 Australian cost for ECD-P Centres about
$12 Billion (Cdn $)

55 03-116 OUTCOME MEASURES

56 Early Development Instrument (EDI)
03-085 Early Development Instrument (EDI) Physical health and well-being Social knowledge and competence Emotional health/maturity Language and cognitive development Communication skills and general knowledge

57 Australia – AEDI Children 5-6 yrs.
07-027 % Vulnerable 40 30 20 10 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 SES - Income

58 Vancouver EDI Numeracy
06-148 Vancouver EDI Numeracy # of % Failing % Not Passing Vulnerabilities Grade Grade 4 Hertzman, HELP, 2006

59 Year 2003 2006 Floreat 47.22% 14.3% Wembley 47.11% 11.8%
07-204 Decrease in the % of vulnerable children as a result of improved ECD in Western Australia Year Floreat % 14.3% Wembley 47.11% % AEDI

60 SOCIOECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS Policy

61 06-078 Heckman - Education Schools contribute little to test score gaps among children. Later schooling has little effect in reducing the gaps that appear early. Criminal rehabilitation and adult literacy programs have limited effect.

62 Policies to Foster Human Capital
02-056 Policies to Foster Human Capital "We cannot afford to postpone investing in children until they become adults nor can we wait until they reach school - a time when it may be too late to intervene." Heckman, J., 2001 (Nobel Prize Economics, 2000)

63 Rates of Return to Human Development Investment Across all Ages
03-074 8 6 Pre-school Programs Return Per $ Invested School 4 R One of the stunning new pieces of information is Heckman’s assessment of when investments in human development have the greatest return on competence and coping skills. This chart from his recent paper, using data from the United States, shows quite clearly that investment in the early years of life before the formal school system, gives the greatest return. We now understand how the social environment gets under the skin, particularly in the early years, to affect health, learning, and behaviour throughout the life cycle. Given this knowledge, and the need for an innovative knowledge based economy it is clear that we have to better integrate the knowledge from the natural sciences and the social sciences if we are to have higher quality populations and a more stable world during this century. This estimate of Heckman does not include the health benefits to individuals and society of preschool early child development programs. Job Training 2 Pre- School School Post School 6 18 Age Carneiro, Heckman, Human Capital Policy, 2003

64 06-063 Public expenditures for children 0-17 years of age, Sweden 1995, by age of child

65 The principle of free education for
01-050 The principle of free education for school-age children is already entrenched throughout the rich world; there would be nothing incongruous about extending it further down the age range. The Economist, pg 16, July 18, 1998

66 Canadian Council for ECD
08-021 Canadian Council for ECD Private sector and community Educate all sectors of society Facilitate application of EDI and its interpretation Prepare and support fellows to work with all sectors of society (private and public)

67 Council for Early Child Development
04-046 Council for Early Child Development Objective: To establish ECD and Parenting Centres linked to the school system with outcome research, supported by all sectors of society, including business and government, that is universally available to all families with young children.

68 Council for Early Child Development
07-098 Council for Early Child Development 07-101 “From Early Child Development to Human Development: Capacity of our Future population depends on what we do now to support Early Child Development.” .

69 Council for Early Child Development
04-045 Council for Early Child Development Chair – Dr. Robin Williams Vice Chair – Dr. Frieda Granot Vice Chair – Jim Grieve President – Dr. Clyde Hertzman C.O.O. – John Doherty 401 Richmond St. W., Suite 277 Toronto, ON, M5V 3A8 For more information:

70 A goal of ARACY and the A goal of ARACY and The Canadian Council for Early Child Development and Parenting is to close the gap between what we know and what we do in our societies – we know what to do.

71 To download this presentation, go to:
01-039 To download this text, visit the Founders’ Network website at To download this presentation, go to: Slides - Slide Shows


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