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What is a learning object, technically? Albert Ip Prof. Iain Morrison Mike Currie.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a learning object, technically? Albert Ip Prof. Iain Morrison Mike Currie."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a learning object, technically? Albert Ip Prof. Iain Morrison Mike Currie

2 Confusing definition of “Learning Object” IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC) –“any entity, digital or non-digital, that can be used, re-used, or referenced during technology supported learning”

3 Confusing definition of “Learning Object” Computer-based training (CBT) vendor NETg, Inc. –a learning objective, –a unit of instruction that teaches the objective, –a unit of assessment that measures the objective.

4 Confusing definition of “Learning Object” Another CBT vendor, Asymetrix –“pre-scripted elements that simplify programming … provide instantaneous programming power”

5 Confusing definition of “Learning Object” Educational Objects Economy –Java Applets only

6 Avoid using “learning object” SCORM - “content object” David Merrill - “knowledge objects” ARIADNE - “pedagogical documents” ESCOT - “educational software components” MERLOT - “resources” Ip & Canale - “Virtual Apparatus”

7 Learning Technologist’s focus Granularity Metadata description (LOM) Internal Structure –layers –NETg vs Ip

8 Educator focus Pedagogical designs review

9 Tutorial, Drill and Practice a tutorial environment a testing/assessment environment Reuse unit: –items –tests

10 Case Method A teaching case is a story describing, or based on, actual events, that justifies careful study and analysis by students discussion-based and experiential Reuse Unit –teaching case

11 Goal-based learning simulations in which there is a problem to resolve, or a mission to complete. require learners to assume the main role in the resolution of the problem or the pursuit of their mission Reuse Unit –scenario –Supporting experience

12 Learning by designing core learning activity is the design of an artifact. practice-based disciplines (engineering & architecture) Reuse Unit –none

13 Web-based role-play simulation learners take on the role-profiles of specific characters in a contrived educational game (Linser, Naidu, & Ip, 1999) acquire the intended learning outcomes & make learning enjoyable Reuse Unit –scenario, role descriptions –resources

14 Distributed problem-based learning exemplifies authentic learning and emphasizes solving problems in rich contexts Reuse Unit –problems

15 Critical incident-based computer supported learning A critical incident (from the workplace) presents a learner with a learning opportunity to reflect in and on action. Reuse Unit –none learning support needed

16 Rule-based simulation Microworlds, or computer simulations of restricted environments Reuse Unit –agents in microworlds

17 Exploratory Learning Through the process of discovery, or guided discovery, the student learns facts, concepts, and procedures. Reuse Unit –resources and related metadata description for discovering the resources

18 Cognitive tool learn “with” interactive learning tools Reuse unit –tools

19 Resource-based Learning Environment emphasizes a transformation of meaning through learner-centered, system-facilitated action Reuse unit –resources

20 What was the issue again? Communities GAP!

21 Blind men & the elephant John Godfrey Saxe's ( 1816-1887) version of the famous Indian legend

22 Types of resources specifically written up reading material resources originally created for other purposes multimedia resource ( content, situations and authority ) structured resources (together with interactivity) special software

23 Observations NOT only “information shoveling” Learning vs Teaching Resources Reuse: –content –interactivity supporting software

24 Relationship between communities Consumer / producer relationship Goods: interactivity software Value-chain: –s/w + content Other players –discovery services …. –Standards to support interoperability

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