Presentation on theme: "Lecture 7: The Real Economy in the Long Run 1. Production & Growth 2. Savings, Investment & the Financial System 3. The Natural Rate of Unemployment."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture 7: The Real Economy in the Long Run 1. Production & Growth 2. Savings, Investment & the Financial System 3. The Natural Rate of Unemployment
PRODUCTION AND GROWTH
The Benefits of Growth Creation of new jobs for growing population Satisfy increasing aspirations through the provision of more and better goods and services Contributes to social & political stability
Productivity Productivity is the key determinant of growth Productivity refers to the quantity of goods and services that a worker can produce from each hour of work.
The Factors of Production Physical capital Human capital Natural resources Technological knowledge
Physical Capital The stock of equipment and structures that are used to produce goods and services. Tools used to build or repair automobiles. Tools used to build homes or buildings. Office buildings, schools, etc.
Human Capital The knowledge and skills that workers acquire through education, training, and experience. Like physical capital, human capital raises a nation’s ability to produce goods and services.
Inputs used in production that are provided by nature, such as land, rivers, and mineral deposits. Renewable resources include trees and forests. Non-renewable resources include petroleum and coal. Natural Resources
Technological Knowledge Technological knowledge is the understanding of the best ways to produce goods and services. This is used to increase the value of human capital.
The Production Function A production function describes the relationship between the quantity of inputs used in production and the quantity of output from production.
The Production Function Y = A F(L, K, H, N) Y = quantity of output A = available production technology L = quantity of labour K = quantity of physical capital H = quantity of human capital N = quantity of natural resources F is a function that shows how the inputs are combined.
Government Policies That Raise Productivity and Living Standards Encourage saving and investment. Establish secure property rights and maintain political stability. Encourage education and training. Promote free trade. Promote research and development. Control population growth.
SAVING, INVESTMENT AND THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM
The Financial System The financial system consists of institutions that help to match one person’s saving with another person’s investment. It moves the economy’s scarce resources from savers to borrowers.
Types of Financial Institutions in the Australian Economy Financial Markets Stock Market Bond Market Financial Intermediaries Banks Managed Funds
The Bond Market A bond is a certificate of indebtedness that specifies obligations of the borrower to the holder of the bond.
Characteristics of a Bond Term: The length of time until maturity. Credit Risk: The probability that the borrower will fail to pay some of the interest or principal. Tax Treatment: The way in which the tax laws treat the interest on the bond. In Australia interest earned on bonds is treated as any other form of income and is taxed. In the U.S. Municipal bonds are federal tax exempt.
A share is a claim to partial ownership in a firm. The sale of stock to raise money is called equity financing. Compared to bonds, shares offer both higher risk and potentially higher returns. The Stock Market
Financial Intermediaries: Banks Banks take deposits from people who want to save and make loans to people who want to borrow. Banks pay depositors interest and charge borrowers slightly higher interest on their loans. Banks help create a medium of exchange by allowing people to write cheques against their deposits.
Financial Intermediaries: Mutual Funds A managed fund is an institution that sells shares to the public and uses the proceeds to buy a selection, or portfolio, of various types of stocks, bonds, or both. They allow people with small amounts of money to easily diversify.
Saving and Investment in the National Income Accounts Recall: Y = C + I + G + NX In a closed economy: Y = C + I + G Total income in the economy after paying for consumption and government purchases is called national saving, or just saving. Therefore it is assumed that: S = I
Private Saving Private saving is the amount of income that households have left after paying their taxes and paying for their consumption. Private saving = (Y – T – C)
Public Saving Public saving is the amount of tax revenue that the government has left after paying for its spending. Public saving = (T – G)
The supply of loanable funds comes from people who have ‘unspent’ income The demand for loanable funds comes from those who wish to borrow to make investments. The equilibrium of the supply and demand for loanable funds determines the real interest rate. Supply and Demand for Loanable Funds
Loanable Funds (in billions of dollars) 0 Interest Rate 5% Supply Demand $1,200
Taxes and Saving Taxes on savings reduce the incentive to save. A tax decrease increases the incentive for households to save at any given interest rate. The supply of loanable funds curve shifts to the right. The equilibrium interest rate decreases. The quantity demanded for loanable funds increases.
An Increase in the Supply of Loanable Funds Loanable Funds (in billions of dollars) 0 Interest Rate 4% 5% Supply, S 1 S2S2 $1,200 $1, which reduces the equilibrium interest rate... Demand 1. Tax incentives for saving increase the supply of loanable funds and raises the equilibrium quantity of loanable funds.
A Tax Credit An investment tax credit increases the incentive to borrow. Increases the demand for loanable funds. Shifts the demand curve to the right. Results in a higher interest rate and a greater quantity saved.
An Increase in the Demand for Loanable Funds Loanable Funds (in billions of dollars) 0 Interest Rate 5% 6% $1,200$1, An investment tax credit increases the demand for loanable funds which raises the equilibrium interest rate and raises the equilibrium quantity of loanable funds. Supply Demand, D 1 D2D2
Budget Deficits When the government spends more than it receives in tax revenues, the short fall is called the budget deficit. The accumulation of past budget deficits is the government debt. Government borrowing reduces the supply of loanable funds available to finance investment by households and firms.
The Effect of a Government Budget Deficit Loanable Funds (in billions of dollars) 0 Interest Rate $800$1, and reduces the equilibrium quantity of loanable funds. S2S which raises the equilibrium interest rate... Supply, S 1 Demand 5% 6% 1. A budget deficit decreases the supply of loanable funds...
Conclusions Financial markets are like other markets in the economy. The real interest rate is governed by the forces of supply and demand. Financial markets coordinate borrowing and lending, helping to allocate the economy’s scarce resources efficiently. The Australian financial system includes financial institutions such as the bond market, the stock market, banks, and managed funds.
Conclusion National saving equals private saving plus public saving. A government budget deficit represents negative public saving, reducing national saving and the supply of loanable funds. It crowds out investment and reduces growth and GDP.
THE NATURAL RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT
Categories of Unemployment The problem of unemployment is usually divided into two categories. The natural rate of unemployment The cyclical rate of unemployment
Natural Rate of Unemployment The natural rate of unemployment is unemployment that does not go away on its own even in the long run. It is the amount of unemployment that the economy normally experiences.
Cyclical Unemployment Cyclical unemployment refers to the fluctuations in unemployment around its natural rate. It is associated with with short-term ups and downs of the business cycle.
Minimum-Wage Laws WEWE Quantity of labour LELE 0 Surplus of labour = Unemployment labour demand Wage Minimum wage LDLD LSLS labour supply
Theory of Efficiency Wages Efficiency wages are above-equilibrium wages paid by firms in order to increase worker productivity Attempts to attract the competent worker Raises wage level above equilibrium Can contribute to unemployment
Reasons for paying Efficiency Wages Worker Health: Better paid workers are more productive. Worker Turnover: A higher paid worker is less likely to look for another job. Worker Effort: Higher wages motivate workers to put forward their best effort. Worker Quality: Higher wages attract a better pool of workers to apply for jobs.
Unions and Collective Bargaining By acting as a cartel with ability to strike or otherwise impose high costs on employers, unions usually achieve above equilibrium wages for their members.
The Effect of Union Bargaining Critics argue that unions cause the allocation of labour to be inefficient and inequitable. Wages above the competitive level reduce the quantity of labour demanded and cause unemployment. Some workers benefit at the expense of other workers.
The Effect of Union Bargaining Advocates of unions contend that unions are a necessary antidote to the market power of firms that hire workers. They claim that unions are important for helping firms respond efficiently to workers’ concerns.
Job Search Unemployment Job search is the process by which workers find appropriate jobs given their tastes and skills. Job search unemployment results from the fact that it takes time for qualified individuals to be matched with appropriate jobs.
The Inevitability of Job Search Unemployment Search unemployment is inevitable because the economy is always changing. Changes in the composition of demand among industries or regions are called sectoral shifts. It takes time for workers to search for and find jobs in new sectors.
Public Policy and Job Search Government programs can affect the time it takes unemployed workers to find new jobs. These programs include the following: Government-run employment agencies Public training programs Unemployment benefits
Conclusion The unemployment rate is the percentage of people who would like to work but don’t have jobs. Most unemployment in Australia is attributable to a few people who are unemployed for long periods of time.
Conclusion Minimum-wage laws can create excess labour supply and cause unemployment. The market power of unions can cause unemployment by pushing wages above the equilibrium level.
Conclusion The payment of efficiency wage and the time involved for workers to search for suitable jobs are other reasons for unemployment. Unemployment benefits may increase the amount of search unemployment but they reduce poverty and may increase workers’ chances of being matched with the right jobs.
Self-Test (Hakes & Parry): Chapter 9 Match all Terms & Definitions Answer questions 1-2 of the Practice Problems Answer Short Answer questions 1, 2, 4, 7, 9 & 10 Do all True/False Questions Answer Multiple Choice Questions 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19 & 20 Make notes on the Advanced Critical Thinking questions Check answers in guide and revise accordingly
Self-Test (Hakes & Parry): Chapter 10 Match all Terms & Definitions Answer questions 1, 2 &3 of the Practice Problems Answer Short Answer questions 2,3,6,7,8,11,13 & 9 Do all True/False Questions Answer Multiple Choice Questions 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 15 & 20 Make notes on the Advanced Critical Thinking questions Check answers in guide and revise accordingly
Self-Test (Hakes & Parry): Chapter 11 Match all Terms & Definitions Answer questions 1-3 of the Practice Problems Answer Short Answer questions 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 & 11 Do all True/False Questions Answer Multiple Choice Questions 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 17, 18 & 20 Make notes on the Advanced Critical Thinking questions Check answers in guide and revise accordingly
Reading This week: Text and Study Guide Chapters 9, 10 & 11 For next lecture: Chapters 12 & 13