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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS LIFE CYCLE Lecture Two (Chapter 2, Notes; Chapter 3, Textbook)

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Presentation on theme: "KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS LIFE CYCLE Lecture Two (Chapter 2, Notes; Chapter 3, Textbook)"— Presentation transcript:

1 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS LIFE CYCLE Lecture Two (Chapter 2, Notes; Chapter 3, Textbook)

2 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-2 Motivation  For any task, from as simple as planning a trip, working on a maths problem,  The process involves a number of steps until you come up with a solution.  In developing a large software system used in industry, the process also follows a number of defined steps which are accepted as best practices by practitioners.

3 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-3 Motivation Cont How many of you have taken a programming unit either here or elsewhere before? What would be the steps you would take in completing a programming assignment?

4 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-4 Motivation Cont  read the problem statement  mentally think about how to solve it  select a programming language (if decided, select what kind of data structures)  translate into program code  compile, run and test  modify if program doesn't function as expected  Satisfied!!

5 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-5 This week’s Topics  Challenges in building KM Systems  Compare CSLC and KMSLC  User’s vs. Expert’s Characteristics  Stages of KMSLC

6 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-6 CHALLENGES IN BUILDING KM SYSTEMS  Culture — getting people to share knowledge  Knowledge evaluation — assessing the worth of knowledge across the organization  Knowledge processing — documenting how decisions are reached  Knowledge implementation — organizing knowledge and integrating it with the processing strategy for final deployment

7 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-7 Conventional System Life Cycle Recognition of Need and Feasibility Study Logical Design (master design plan) Physical Design (coding) Testing Implementation (file conversion, user training) Operations and Maintenance Functional Requirements Specifications Iterative KM System Life Cycle Evaluate Existing Infrastructure Knowledge Capture Design KMS Blueprint Verify and validate the KM System Implement the KM System Manage Change and Rewards Structure Form the KM Team Post-system evaluation versus Iterative

8 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-8 Key Differences  Systems analysts knowledge developers  Systems analysts deal with information from the user; knowledge developers deal with knowledge from domain experts  Users know the problem but not the solution; domain experts know both the problem and the solution sequential incremental interactive  Conventional SLC is primarily sequential; KM SLC is incremental and interactive.  System testing normally at end of conventional system life cycle; KM system testing evolves from beginning of the cycle

9 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-9 Key Differences (cont’d)  Conventional system life cycle is process-driven or “specify then build”  KM system life cycle is result-oriented or “start slow and grow”

10 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-10 Key Similarities  Both begin with a problem and end with a solution  Both begin with information gathering or knowledge capture  Testing is essentially the same to make sure “the system is right” and “it is the right system”  Both developers must choose the appropriate tool(s) for designing their respective systems

11 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-11 Stages of KMSLC Evaluate Existing Infrastructure Knowledge Capture Design KM Blueprint Verify and validate the KM System Implement the KM System Manage Change and Rewards Structure Form the KM Team Post-system evaluation Iterative Rapid Prototyping Iterative Rapid Prototyping

12 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-12 (1) Evaluate Existing Infrastructure System justifications:  What knowledge will be lost through retirement, transfer, or departure to other firms?  Is the proposed KM system needed in several locations?  Are experts available and willing to help in building a KM system?  Does the problem in question require years of experience and tacit reasoning to solve?

13 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-13 The Scope Factor  Consider breadth and depth of the project within financial, human resource, and operational constraints  Project must be completed quickly enough for users to foresee its benefits  Check to see how current technology will match technical requirements of the proposed KM system

14 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-14 Role of Strategic Planning  Risky to plunge into a KMS without strategy Knowledge developer should consider: Vision Resources Culture

15 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-15 (2) Form the KM Team  Identify the key stakeholders of the prospective KM system.  Team success depends on:  Ability of team members  Team size  Complexity of the project  Leadership and team motivation  Not promising more than can be realistically delivered

16 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-16 (3) Knowledge Capture  Explicit knowledge captured in repositories from various media  Tacit knowledge captured from company experts using various tools and methodologies  Knowledge developers capture knowledge from experts in order to build the knowledge base

17 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-17 Selecting an Expert  How does one know the expert is in fact an expert? How does one know the expert is in fact an expert?  How would one know that the expert will stay with the project?  What backup should be available in case the project loses the expert?  How could we know what is and what is not within the expert’s area of expertise?

18 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-18 (4) Design the KM Blueprint The KM blueprint addresses several issues:  Finalize scope of proposed KM system with realized net benefits  Decide on required system components  Develop the key layers of the KM software architecture to meet company requirementskey layers of the KM software architecture  System interoperability and scalability with existing company IT infrastructure

19 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-19 (5)Testing the KM System  Verification procedure: ensures that the system has the right functions  Validation procedure: ensures that the system has the right output  Validation of KM systems is not foolproof

20 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-20 (6) Implement the KM System  Converting a new KM system into actual operation  includes conversion of data or files  also includes user training  Quality assurance is important, which includes checking for:  Reasoning errors  Ambiguity  Incompleteness  False representation (false positive and false negative)

21 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-21 (7) Manage Change and Rewards Structure  Goal is to minimize resistance to change  Experts  Regular employees (users)  Troublemakers  Resistances via projection, avoidance, or aggression

22 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-22 (8) Post-system Evaluation  Assess system impact in terms of effects on:  People  Procedures  Performance of the business  Areas of concern:  Quality of decision making  Attitude of end users  Costs of Knowledge processing and update

23 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-23 Key Questions  Has accuracy and timeliness of decision making improved?  Has KMS caused organizational changes?  What are users’ reactions towards KMS?  Has KMS changed the cost of operating the business?  Have relationships among users affected?  Does KMS justify the cost of investment?

24 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-24 End of Lecture 2

25 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-25 Basic Knowledge-Related Definitions Common Sense Inborn ability to sense, judge, or perceive situations; grows stronger over time FactA statement that relates a certain element of truth about a subject matter or a domain HeuristicA rule of thumb based on years of experience KnowledgeUnderstanding gained through experience; familiarity with the way to perform a task; an accumulation of facts, procedural rules, or heuristics IntelligenceThe capacity to acquire and apply knowledge

26 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-26 Types (Categorization) of Knowledge  Shallow (readily recalled) and deep (acquired through years of experience)  Explicit (already codified) and tacit (embedded in the mind)  Procedural (repetitive, stepwise) versus Episodical (grouped by episodes) chunks  Knowledge exist in chunks

27 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-27 What makes someone an expert?  An expert in a specialized area masters the requisite knowledge  The unique performance of a knowledgeable expert is clearly noticeable in decision-making quality  Knowledgeable experts are more selective in the information they acquire  Experts are beneficiaries of the knowledge that comes from experience

28 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-28 1.Purpose 2.Statement of Scope & Objectives 2.1 System functions 2.2 Users and characteristics 2.3 Operating environment 2.4 User environment 2.5 Design/implementation constraints 2.6 Assumptions and dependencies 3. Functional Requirements 3.1 User interfaces 3.2 Hardware interfaces 3.3 Software interfaces 3.4 Communication protocols and interfaces 4. Nonfunctional Requirements 4.1 Performance requirements 4.2 Safety requirements 4.3 Security requirements 4.4 Software quality attributes 4.5 Project documentation 4.6 User documentation

29 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-29 Users Versus Experts Attribute User Expert Dependence on system High Low to nil Cooperation Usually cooperative Cooperation not required Tolerance for ambiguity Low High Knowledge of problem High Average/low Contribution to systemInformation Knowledge/expertise System userYes No Availability for system builder Readily available Not readily available

30 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-30 Rapid Prototyping Process? Build a Task Structure a Task Structure the Problem Make Modifications Reformulate the Problem Repeated Cycle(s) Repeated Cycle(s)

31 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-31 User Interface (Web browser software installed on each user’s PC) Authorized access control (e.g., security, passwords, firewalls, authentication) Collaborative intelligence and filtering (intelligent agents, network mining, customization, personalization) Knowledge-enabling applications ( customized applications, skills directories, videoconferencing, decision support systems, group decision support systems tools) Transport (e-mail, Internet/Web site, TCP/IP protocol to manage traffic flow) Middleware (specialized software for network management, security, etc.) The Physical Layer (repositories, cables)..... Databases Data warehousing (data cleansing, data mining) Groupware (document exchange, collaboration) Legacy applications (e.g., payroll) 12345671234567 Layers of KM Architecture

32 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-32 Knowledge Capture and Transfer Through Teams Team performs a specialized task Knowledge transfer method selected Evaluate relationship between action and outcome Outcome Achieved Knowledge Developer Knowledge stored in a form usable by others in the organization Feedback

33 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-33 An illustration ZeroLowMediumHighVery High Value Information Data H T H T T H H H T H … T T T H T p H = 0.40 p T = 0.60 R H = +$10 R T = -$8 n H = 40 n T = 60 EV = -$0.80 Knowledge Counting p H = n H /(n H +n T ) p T = n T /(n H +n T ) EV=p H R H + p T R T

34 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-34 CHALLENGES IN BUILDING KM SYSTEMS  Culture — getting people to share knowledge  Knowledge evaluation — assessing the worth of knowledge across the organization  Knowledge processing — documenting how decisions are reached  Knowledge implementation — organizing knowledge and integrating it with the processing strategy for final deployment

35 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-35 Vision  Foresee what the business is trying to achieve, how it will be done, and how the new system will achieve goals

36 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-36 Resources  Check on the affordability of the business to invest in a new KM system

37 Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Systems Life Cycle 2-37 Culture  Is the company’s political and social environment open and responsive to adopting a new KM system?


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