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IP & M Exam Revision Quiz Jan Christensen 2004. What is DATA? Unprocessed isolated facts. Unprocessed isolated facts.

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Presentation on theme: "IP & M Exam Revision Quiz Jan Christensen 2004. What is DATA? Unprocessed isolated facts. Unprocessed isolated facts."— Presentation transcript:

1 IP & M Exam Revision Quiz Jan Christensen 2004

2 What is DATA? Unprocessed isolated facts. Unprocessed isolated facts.

3 What is Information? Organised and structured data that create meaning Organised and structured data that create meaning

4 What is Efficiency? Relates to time, cost and effort associated with completing a task. Relates to time, cost and effort associated with completing a task.

5 What is Effectiveness? Related to the quality of the task (Accuracy or better presentation) Related to the quality of the task (Accuracy or better presentation)

6 List the 9 stages of Information Processing Acquisition Acquisition Input Input Validation Validation Manipulation Manipulation Storage Storage Retrieval Retrieval Output Output Communication Communication Disposal Disposal

7 What is Data Acquisition? Collection of facts from Primary or Secondary Sources Collection of facts from Primary or Secondary Sources

8 What are the key features of an Organisation? (3) Comprises any group of people who work together towards a goal Comprises any group of people who work together towards a goal Can be grouped by their type, size, prime function or goals Can be grouped by their type, size, prime function or goals Have mission statements that represent their broad goals Have mission statements that represent their broad goals

9 What is the structure of an Organisation? Profit Based Profit Based Non Profit Non Profit

10 Give 2 examples of an Organisation’s Goal Provide Clients with a fast, efficient service Provide Clients with a fast, efficient service Provide a minimum ten percent return on the owner’s investment Provide a minimum ten percent return on the owner’s investment

11 What is Primary Source Data? Collected directly from the person who experienced an event (eg talking to an astronaut to find out what it is like to travel into outer space) Collected directly from the person who experienced an event (eg talking to an astronaut to find out what it is like to travel into outer space)

12 What is Secondary Source Data? Collecting data from someone else’s research or writings (using books, newspapers, Internet) Collecting data from someone else’s research or writings (using books, newspapers, Internet)

13 What are the 2 Sources of Data for an Organisation? Internal Internal External External

14 What are the 8 different data types? Alphabetic Alphabetic Numeric Numeric Chronological Chronological Oral Oral Graphical Graphical Physical Physical Sensory Sensory Observed Observed

15 What are the 8 different forms of Information? Written Written Numeric Numeric Coded Coded Oral Oral Pictorial Pictorial Audio-visual Audio-visual Sound Sound Video Video

16 What are the 3 Characteristics of Information? Nature (formal, Informal, Quality and Quantity) Nature (formal, Informal, Quality and Quantity) Structure (detailed, summarised, sampled) Structure (detailed, summarised, sampled) Purpose (Inform employees, customers or shareholders) Purpose (Inform employees, customers or shareholders)

17 What is Formal Information? Following a prescribed format (ex annual report) Following a prescribed format (ex annual report)

18 What is Informal Information? Providing assisting (given verbally, via etc) Providing assisting (given verbally, via etc)

19 What is Detailed Information? Item by item information that is used at the operational level on an organisation. Item by item information that is used at the operational level on an organisation.

20 What is Summarised Information? The main information such as totals, which is used at the middle and senior management levels The main information such as totals, which is used at the middle and senior management levels

21 What is Sampled Information? A small part of the total information that can be generated on a particular subject. (taken from limited sources) A small part of the total information that can be generated on a particular subject. (taken from limited sources)

22 What determines the quality of Information? Accuracy Accuracy Clarity of message Clarity of message Completeness and Relevance Completeness and Relevance Presentation Presentation Timeliness Timeliness Validity Validity

23 What types of decision do Senior Managers Make? Strategic Strategic

24 What types of decisions do Middle Managers make? Tactical Tactical

25 What types of decisions do Operational Managers make? Operational Operational

26 What type of information do Senior Managers use to make decisions? Highly summarised Highly summarised

27 What type of information do Middle managers use to make decisions? Summarised, monthly reports etc Summarised, monthly reports etc

28 What type of information do Operational Managers use to make decisions? Daily/weekly reports Daily/weekly reports

29 What are the different types of Information Systems? Enterprise System Enterprise System Transaction Processing System Transaction Processing System Business Support System Business Support System Knowledge Management System Knowledge Management System User Productivity System User Productivity System

30 What is an Enterprise System? Supports an entire organisation’s management needs. Supports an entire organisation’s management needs. Provides data access Provides data access Facilitates forecasting Facilitates forecasting

31 Transaction Processing System Process Data generated by the organisation’s Activities on a Daily basis. Process Data generated by the organisation’s Activities on a Daily basis. Can be called Operational Systems Can be called Operational Systems Ex Ex  Customer Billing  Invoicing  Point of Sale Processing

32 What is a Business Support System? Provided Information that is useful to all users. Provided Information that is useful to all users. It can examine transaction data and provide information to aid decision-making. It can examine transaction data and provide information to aid decision-making. Has replaced Management Information Systems Has replaced Management Information Systems

33 What is a Knowledge Management System? Once referred to as Expert Systems Once referred to as Expert Systems Used in Medical Diagnosis, Locating Faults in equipment. Used in Medical Diagnosis, Locating Faults in equipment. Contains a Large knowledge base (database) Contains a Large knowledge base (database) Allows users to search for information by asking questions. Allows users to search for information by asking questions. Does not make decision based on human reasoning. Does not make decision based on human reasoning.

34 What is a User Productivity System? Provides all members of organisation with applications, tools, and utilities. Provides all members of organisation with applications, tools, and utilities.

35 List some Input Hardware Keyboard Keyboard Pointers (mouse, Pen, Touch Screen) Pointers (mouse, Pen, Touch Screen) Scanners Scanners Digital Cameras Digital Cameras Voice Recognition Voice Recognition

36 What is Processing Hardware? Computer system Computer system  CPU (Central Processing Unit – carries out instructions ). The faster the processor the faster the response time.  RAM (Random Access Memory – Short term memory, lost when computer is turned off)

37 What are 2 types of communication Hardware? Modem (Allows data transmission from one computer to another via telephone cable) Modem (Allows data transmission from one computer to another via telephone cable) NIC NIC

38 What are the 2 types of Output Hardware? Monitor ( VDU - Higher resolution clearer the image. Usually 800 x 600) Monitor ( VDU - Higher resolution clearer the image. Usually 800 x 600) Printers (Inkjet, Laser Printers (Inkjet, Laser  Characteristics of Printers  Resolution measured in DPI  Print Speed (pages per minute)

39 What are the 5 common types of Storage Devices? Floppy Disk (1.44 MB) Floppy Disk (1.44 MB) Hard Disk (10GB + Hard Disk (10GB + High Capacity Disks High Capacity Disks  Zip Disk up to 750 Mb  Jaz Disk (1 – 2 Gb)  Super Disk (120Mb – 240 MB) CD/DVD (650MB) CD/DVD (650MB) Tapes (terrabyte) Tapes (terrabyte)

40 What is a Network? Connects a number of computers together Connects a number of computers together

41 What does a network do? Allows the sharing of resources such as printers, plotters, Internet access, servers, scanners. Allows the sharing of resources such as printers, plotters, Internet access, servers, scanners.

42 Why have a network? Easier to communicate between computers. Easier to communicate between computers. People can work on the same project at the same time. People can work on the same project at the same time. Saves resources Saves resources

43 What are the different types of Networks? LAN (connect computers in close geographical areas) LAN (connect computers in close geographical areas) WAN (Communication is carried by a medium owned by someone else) WAN (Communication is carried by a medium owned by someone else)  MAN (Covers a single city)  State-wide network  National Area Network  WWW

44 List some of the Network Hardware Hub (transmits a signal from one computer to another) Hub (transmits a signal from one computer to another) Switch (allows several computers to send information over a network simultaneously) Switch (allows several computers to send information over a network simultaneously) Server (allows for software and files to be stored centrally and shared) Server (allows for software and files to be stored centrally and shared) Router (determines the correct path for packets to take between networks) Router (determines the correct path for packets to take between networks) Transmission Media (Cabling, wireless transmission) Transmission Media (Cabling, wireless transmission)

45 What are some of the Improvements in Efficiency with Networks? Save time (users are connected to share resources) Save time (users are connected to share resources) Save Money (single resource can be shared between many) Save Money (single resource can be shared between many) Improve communication (simple and faster, chat programs, etc) Improve communication (simple and faster, chat programs, etc)

46 What are some of the Improvements in Effectiveness with Networks? Make communication easier and faster therefore people are more likely to communicate. Make communication easier and faster therefore people are more likely to communicate. Quality of communication Quality of communication Allows multiple users access to the same file at the same time Allows multiple users access to the same file at the same time

47 What is a NIC? Network Interface Card (connected to the network by wires, radio waves, infrared, microwave or fibre optic cable. Network Interface Card (connected to the network by wires, radio waves, infrared, microwave or fibre optic cable.

48 What are the two types of network arrangements? Client server Client server  Client requests data or files  Server shares or sends data and files to those who ask for it. Peer to Peer Peer to Peer  All devices are able to share files and resources. Each computer must wait to get the resources.

49 What are Protocols? Rules that must be followed by network devices when building the packets of data that travel around a network. Rules that must be followed by network devices when building the packets of data that travel around a network.

50 What is TCP/IP? Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol  The Internet is based on this protocol  Has a small packet size

51 What is a Network Operating System? Software that controls traffic on a network and defines how devices will communicate with each other. Software that controls traffic on a network and defines how devices will communicate with each other.

52 What are the four types of Network topologies? Star (All components are connected to a central hub. The hub takes the signals from each computer and sends them simultaneously to all others. Each device must wait to send). Star (All components are connected to a central hub. The hub takes the signals from each computer and sends them simultaneously to all others. Each device must wait to send). Costly to install Easily Expanded Limited to cable lengths of 100 m using UTP or 2 Km using Fibre Optic.

53 What are the four types of Network Topologies (2) Bus (The wires run from one device to the next device and so on until all devices are connected. The cables are terminated at the end of the run). Bus (The wires run from one device to the next device and so on until all devices are connected. The cables are terminated at the end of the run).  Cheaper to install than Star, less cabling, no hubs.  Can only operate at 10 MB per second on coaxial cabling.

54 What are the four types of Network Topologies (3) Ring Network (All computers are connected in a ring and messages travel around the ring to the other computers) Ring Network (All computers are connected in a ring and messages travel around the ring to the other computers)  Token ring is an improvement on the ring. (must hold the token to speak)  Only operate at 10 MBps coaxial

55 What are the 3 types of Transmission Media? Coaxial Cable Coaxial Cable  Uses 2 wires  Carry data over 185 metres at 10 MBps UTP UTP  Eight wires  Cat 3 = 10 Mbps Cat 5 = 100 Mbps  Cat 5a = 260 Mbps Fibre Optic Fibre Optic  Glass strand that transmits light pulses  100 Mbps

56 What is a Hub? Takes incoming signal and re-broadcasts it down all of the outgoing wires connected to it. Takes incoming signal and re-broadcasts it down all of the outgoing wires connected to it. Only used on star networks Only used on star networks Sends data to all devices Sends data to all devices

57 What is a Switch? Stores addresses of every device down each wire leading from itself. Stores addresses of every device down each wire leading from itself. Sends the packet only to the right address Sends the packet only to the right address Reduces Network traffic. Reduces Network traffic.

58 What is a Router? Decides what is the best path for a packet to travel between networks. Decides what is the best path for a packet to travel between networks. Holds a routing table showing which route to take to a destination. Holds a routing table showing which route to take to a destination.

59 Define the 3 types of Software? System System  Programs which control the operation of the hardware resources (Windows etc) Application Application  A computer program custom written or pre- packaged that performs certain tasks (Word, Excel) Utility Utility  Diagnostic tools (Scan Disk, Defrag etc)

60 What is a Procedure? Instructions or rules that are followed by personnel in the organisation. Instructions or rules that are followed by personnel in the organisation.

61 What are some of the threats to data? Accidental Loss or damage Accidental Loss or damage Deliberate loss or damage (viruses, computer crime, hackers, vandalism) Deliberate loss or damage (viruses, computer crime, hackers, vandalism) Internal (dissatisfied employees, viruses, inappropriate file deletion, copying of files) Internal (dissatisfied employees, viruses, inappropriate file deletion, copying of files) External (viruses, hackers, power fluctuations, computer crime) External (viruses, hackers, power fluctuations, computer crime)

62 What are some physical security measures? Keyboard locks Keyboard locks Security Cameras Security Cameras UPS UPS Surge Protectors Surge Protectors Restricted Access (key locks, swipe cards, finger print scans etc) Restricted Access (key locks, swipe cards, finger print scans etc)

63 What are the logical security measures? User names and passwords User names and passwords Access restrictions (access to certain areas of the network (Vlans), time restriction access) Access restrictions (access to certain areas of the network (Vlans), time restriction access) Audit Trails (record of who was logged in) Audit Trails (record of who was logged in) Encryption (coded text) Encryption (coded text) Firewalls (blocks entry to an organisation’s network from outside) Firewalls (blocks entry to an organisation’s network from outside) Anti-virus software Anti-virus software

64 What is a Disaster Recover Plan? A strategy employed by an organisation to ensure that, whatever occurs, it can recover records as quickly as possible. It addresses all risks and plans provide the strategy to include checks, media to be used and storage requirements. A strategy employed by an organisation to ensure that, whatever occurs, it can recover records as quickly as possible. It addresses all risks and plans provide the strategy to include checks, media to be used and storage requirements.

65 What steps are in a Problem Solving Methodology? Analysis Analysis Design Design Development Development Testing Testing Documenting Documenting Evaluation Evaluation

66 What are the Design Tools that an organisation could use? IPO Chart IPO Chart Data Structure Table Data Structure Table Flow Chart Flow Chart Layout Layout Storyboard Storyboard Data Flow Diagrams Data Flow Diagrams Decision Tables Decision Tables Data Dictionaries Data Dictionaries Organisation Charts Organisation Charts

67 How do you test a solution? Create test data Create test data  Test the limits of ranges, types of data, and formulas Test the message Test the message Test the interface Test the interface  User friendly

68 What are the different types of User Documentation? Quick Start guide Quick Start guide User Manual User Manual Technical guide or Software Reference Manual Technical guide or Software Reference Manual On-line help On-line help

69 How can you evaluate solutions? Surveys/questionnaires Surveys/questionnaires Comparisons Comparisons Observations Observations

70 What does Project Management Involve? Planning, organising and monitoring a task undertaken by an organisation. Planning, organising and monitoring a task undertaken by an organisation.

71 What is Contingency Planning? Allowing some scope within the time frame of the project for some difficulties or unforeseen circumstances, without affecting the end date of the project. Allowing some scope within the time frame of the project for some difficulties or unforeseen circumstances, without affecting the end date of the project.

72 What is a milestone? Points throughout the project where components of the task should be completed and allow the project manager to evaluate the success of the project to date. They are shown as a diamond in a Gantt Chart. Points throughout the project where components of the task should be completed and allow the project manager to evaluate the success of the project to date. They are shown as a diamond in a Gantt Chart.

73 What is Slack Time? Slack time occurs when several tasks are done simultaneously and the shorter tasks are completed and therefore there is spare time while the longest task is completed. They are shown as dotted lines on a Pert diagram. Slack time occurs when several tasks are done simultaneously and the shorter tasks are completed and therefore there is spare time while the longest task is completed. They are shown as dotted lines on a Pert diagram.

74 What are Predecessors? Tasks that must be completed before the next task can start. Tasks that must be completed before the next task can start.

75 What is the Critical Path? The longest route through the project and any task on this path that is not completed on time affects the completion date. It is shown in red on a Pert Diagram. The longest route through the project and any task on this path that is not completed on time affects the completion date. It is shown in red on a Pert Diagram.

76 Identify the Critical Path A, B, D, F, I

77 What are the factors that cause Change in an Organisation? Government Policy (GST) Government Policy (GST) Legislation (OH&S laws) Legislation (OH&S laws) Market Trends Market Trends Community Attitudes & Values Community Attitudes & Values Cost/benefits Cost/benefits Health & Safety (RSI) Health & Safety (RSI) Competitiveness Competitiveness

78 What are 6 Social Issues of Change? Job Enrichment Job Enrichment Deskilling (less skills needed) Deskilling (less skills needed) Health & Safety (less exposure to risk) Health & Safety (less exposure to risk) Invasion of Privacy (Database details) Invasion of Privacy (Database details) Depersonalisation (ATM’s) Depersonalisation (ATM’s) Alienation (Powerlessness of people who lack the skills and knowledge needed to successfully use computer systems) Alienation (Powerlessness of people who lack the skills and knowledge needed to successfully use computer systems)

79 What are 4 Economic Issues Causing Change? Costs Costs Productivity Productivity Profits Profits Obsolescence Obsolescence

80 What is a Health & Safety Issue related to change? Ergonomics Ergonomics

81 What is Ergonomics? The study of how humans and machines interact. It has led to the development of recommendations of how humans and computers should interact. The study of how humans and machines interact. It has led to the development of recommendations of how humans and computers should interact.

82 What are the Physical Injuries that a worker can sustain? RSI (Repetitive Strain Injury – caused by repeating the same task over and over) RSI (Repetitive Strain Injury – caused by repeating the same task over and over) Sprains & Strains (Incorrect posture can lead to back, neck and muscle strain) Sprains & Strains (Incorrect posture can lead to back, neck and muscle strain) Eye Problems (Incorrect lighting or over- bright screens can lead to eye strain) Eye Problems (Incorrect lighting or over- bright screens can lead to eye strain)

83 What are three Safety Concerns When Managing Change? Radiation Radiation Long Hours Long Hours Stress Stress

84 What are the Legal & Ethical Issues when Managing Change? Software Piracy Software Piracy Electronic Monitoring Electronic Monitoring Intellectual Property (Ownership of data) Intellectual Property (Ownership of data) Environmental Issues (Old Equipment to be disposed of) Environmental Issues (Old Equipment to be disposed of)

85 What steps are in the SDLC? Analyse Analyse Design Design Develop Develop Implement Implement Evaluate Evaluate

86 Analysis Involves 4 things. What are they? A feasibility Study (identifies nature and scope of the problem, proposes alternative solutions, describes costs/benefits and makes recommendations). A feasibility Study (identifies nature and scope of the problem, proposes alternative solutions, describes costs/benefits and makes recommendations). Data Gathering (on how the system currently operates via interviews, observation, research, questionnaires etc) Data Gathering (on how the system currently operates via interviews, observation, research, questionnaires etc)

87 Analysis (2) Data Analysis (Graphical representation of how the system works) Data Analysis (Graphical representation of how the system works) A Written report (Definition of the problem, how the system works, what needs to be changed and the recommended preferred solution). A Written report (Definition of the problem, how the system works, what needs to be changed and the recommended preferred solution).

88 What does Design Involve? Draw up actual designs Draw up actual designs Process design (the planning and monitoring of the project – PM) Process design (the planning and monitoring of the project – PM) Solution Design (Input/Output requirements). Solution Design (Input/Output requirements).

89 What does Development Involve? Coding of the program or purchasing the S/W or H/W as well as testing. Coding of the program or purchasing the S/W or H/W as well as testing. Components include: Components include:  Software  Hardware  Unit Testing  System Testing  Internal & External Documentation

90 What are the 4 ways to implement a change? Direct Conversion Direct Conversion  Turn off Old system, start new Parallel Conversion Parallel Conversion  Old and new working together Phased Conversion Phased Conversion  Only some parts of the system are changed over at any one time. Implemented in stages. Pilot Conversion Pilot Conversion  Entire system implemented in one department or user group.

91 How can users be trained? External Courses External Courses In-house training In-house training Train the trainer Train the trainer Textbooks Textbooks Computer based tutorials Computer based tutorials Help-lines Help-lines User Manuals User Manuals User groups User groups

92 How can a system be evaluated? Checking that the system meets the stated objectives. Checking that the system meets the stated objectives. Surveying employees or customers Surveying employees or customers Observing the system Observing the system Timing how long a task takes Timing how long a task takes Recording any errors or faults Recording any errors or faults Evaluating the accuracy of the output Evaluating the accuracy of the output

93 When is the best time to evaluate a new system The best time to evaluate most information systems is between three and six months after implementation. Some systems, however, need to be evaluated after every cycle of information is produced. The best time to evaluate most information systems is between three and six months after implementation. Some systems, however, need to be evaluated after every cycle of information is produced.

94 What do project resources consist of? Project resources consist of money, personnel and the equipment required to complete a particular task. Project resources consist of money, personnel and the equipment required to complete a particular task.

95 Is it illegal to forward an ? Yes Yes  An can be protected by copyright just like, for example, an instruction booklet can

96 Copyright Amendment (Digital Agenda) Act 2000 the Act aims to update the Copyright Act 1968 to take account of technological developments such as the Internet and cable TV. the Act aims to update the Copyright Act 1968 to take account of technological developments such as the Internet and cable TV. New right of communication for owners gives copyright owners the right to control how their work is electronically transmitted to the public or made available online. New right of communication for owners gives copyright owners the right to control how their work is electronically transmitted to the public or made available online.

97 Copyright Amendment (Digital Agenda) Act 2000 (2) It encourages copyright owners to 'help themselves' to enforce their rights in the online environment by using technological copyright protection devices, such as access codes, encryption and software locks. It encourages copyright owners to 'help themselves' to enforce their rights in the online environment by using technological copyright protection devices, such as access codes, encryption and software locks.

98 Copyright Amendment (Computer Programs) Act 1999 On 12 August 1999 Australia's copyright law was changed to allow users to decompile or reproduce computer programs in certain circumstances without breaching copyright. On 12 August 1999 Australia's copyright law was changed to allow users to decompile or reproduce computer programs in certain circumstances without breaching copyright. What do the new laws allow me to do? allows you to reproduce a computer program What do the new laws allow me to do? allows you to reproduce a computer program   as part of the normal running of the program;   in order to study how it functions;   to make a back-up copy of the program;   to make an interoperable product;   to correct errors in the program; or  to test its security.

99 When is the IP&M Exam? Tuesday, 9 th November Tuesday, 9 th November  3:00pm – 5:15pm

100 What do you need to pass? Determination Determination Study Study As many practice questions as you can As many practice questions as you can A positive outlook A positive outlook


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