3What is Information?Organised and structured data that create meaning
4What is Efficiency?Relates to time, cost and effort associated with completing a task.
5What is Effectiveness?Related to the quality of the task (Accuracy or better presentation)
6List the 9 stages of Information Processing AcquisitionInputValidationManipulationStorageRetrievalOutputCommunicationDisposal
7What is Data Acquisition? Collection of facts from Primary or Secondary Sources
8What are the key features of an Organisation? (3) Comprises any group of people who work together towards a goalCan be grouped by their type, size, prime function or goalsHave mission statements that represent their broad goals
9What is the structure of an Organisation? Profit BasedNon Profit
10Give 2 examples of an Organisation’s Goal Provide Clients with a fast, efficient serviceProvide a minimum ten percent return on the owner’s investment
11What is Primary Source Data? Collected directly from the person who experienced an event (eg talking to an astronaut to find out what it is like to travel into outer space)
12What is Secondary Source Data? Collecting data from someone else’s research or writings (using books, newspapers, Internet)
13What are the 2 Sources of Data for an Organisation? InternalExternal
14What are the 8 different data types? AlphabeticNumericChronologicalOralGraphicalPhysicalSensoryObserved
15What are the 8 different forms of Information? WrittenNumericCodedOralPictorialAudio-visualSoundVideo
16What are the 3 Characteristics of Information? Nature (formal, Informal, Quality and Quantity)Structure (detailed, summarised, sampled)Purpose (Inform employees, customers or shareholders)
17What is Formal Information? Following a prescribed format (ex annual report)
18What is Informal Information? Providing assisting (given verbally, via etc)
19What is Detailed Information? Item by item information that is used at the operational level on an organisation.
20What is Summarised Information? The main information such as totals, which is used at the middle and senior management levels
21What is Sampled Information? A small part of the total information that can be generated on a particular subject. (taken from limited sources)
22What determines the quality of Information? AccuracyClarity of messageCompleteness and RelevancePresentationTimelinessValidity
23What types of decision do Senior Managers Make? Strategic
24What types of decisions do Middle Managers make? Tactical
25What types of decisions do Operational Managers make?
26What type of information do Senior Managers use to make decisions? Highly summarised
27What type of information do Middle managers use to make decisions? Summarised, monthly reports etc
28What type of information do Operational Managers use to make decisions? Daily/weekly reports
29What are the different types of Information Systems? Enterprise SystemTransaction Processing SystemBusiness Support SystemKnowledge Management SystemUser Productivity System
30What is an Enterprise System? Supports an entire organisation’s management needs.Provides data accessFacilitates forecasting
31Transaction Processing System Process Data generated by the organisation’s Activities on a Daily basis.Can be called Operational SystemsExCustomer BillingInvoicingPoint of Sale Processing
32What is a Business Support System? Provided Information that is useful to all users.It can examine transaction data and provide information to aid decision-making.Has replaced Management Information Systems
33What is a Knowledge Management System? Once referred to as Expert SystemsUsed in Medical Diagnosis, Locating Faults in equipment.Contains a Large knowledge base (database)Allows users to search for information by asking questions.Does not make decision based on human reasoning.
34What is a User Productivity System? Provides all members of organisation with applications, tools, and utilities.
36What is Processing Hardware? Computer systemCPU (Central Processing Unit – carries out instructions ). The faster the processor the faster the response time.RAM (Random Access Memory – Short term memory, lost when computer is turned off)
37What are 2 types of communication Hardware? Modem (Allows data transmission from one computer to another via telephone cable)NIC
38What are the 2 types of Output Hardware? Monitor ( VDU - Higher resolution clearer the image. Usually 800 x 600)Printers (Inkjet, LaserCharacteristics of PrintersResolution measured in DPIPrint Speed (pages per minute)
39What are the 5 common types of Storage Devices? Floppy Disk (1.44 MB)Hard Disk (10GB +High Capacity DisksZip Disk up to 750 MbJaz Disk (1 – 2 Gb)Super Disk (120Mb – 240 MB)CD/DVD (650MB)Tapes (terrabyte)
40What is a Network?Connects a number of computers together
41What does a network do?Allows the sharing of resources such as printers, plotters, Internet access, servers, scanners.
42Why have a network? Easier to communicate between computers. People can work on the same project at the same time.Saves resources
43What are the different types of Networks? LAN (connect computers in close geographical areas)WAN (Communication is carried by a medium owned by someone else)MAN (Covers a single city)State-wide networkNational Area NetworkWWW
44List some of the Network Hardware Hub (transmits a signal from one computer to another)Switch (allows several computers to send information over a network simultaneously)Server (allows for software and files to be stored centrally and shared)Router (determines the correct path for packets to take between networks)Transmission Media (Cabling, wireless transmission)
45What are some of the Improvements in Efficiency with Networks? Save time (users are connected to share resources)Save Money (single resource can be shared between many)Improve communication (simple and faster, chat programs, etc)
46What are some of the Improvements in Effectiveness with Networks? Make communication easier and faster therefore people are more likely to communicate.Quality of communicationAllows multiple users access to the same file at the same time
47What is a NIC?Network Interface Card (connected to the network by wires, radio waves, infrared, microwave or fibre optic cable.
48What are the two types of network arrangements? Client serverClient requests data or filesServer shares or sends data and files to those who ask for it.Peer to PeerAll devices are able to share files and resources. Each computer must wait to get the resources.
49What are Protocols?Rules that must be followed by network devices when building the packets of data that travel around a network.
50What is TCP/IP? Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol The Internet is based on this protocolHas a small packet size
51What is a Network Operating System? Software that controls traffic on a network and defines how devices will communicate with each other.
52What are the four types of Network topologies? Star (All components are connected to a central hub. The hub takes the signals from each computer and sends them simultaneously to all others. Each device must wait to send).Costly to installEasily ExpandedLimited to cable lengths of 100 m using UTP or 2 Km using Fibre Optic.
53What are the four types of Network Topologies (2) Bus (The wires run from one device to the next device and so on until all devices are connected. The cables are terminated at the end of the run).Cheaper to install than Star, less cabling, no hubs.Can only operate at 10 MB per second on coaxial cabling.
54What are the four types of Network Topologies (3) Ring Network (All computers are connected in a ring and messages travel around the ring to the other computers)Token ring is an improvement on the ring. (must hold the token to speak)Only operate at 10 MBps coaxial
55What are the 3 types of Transmission Media? Coaxial CableUses 2 wiresCarry data over 185 metres at 10 MBpsUTPEight wiresCat 3 = 10 Mbps Cat 5 = 100 MbpsCat 5a = 260 MbpsFibre OpticGlass strand that transmits light pulses100 Mbps
56What is a Hub?Takes incoming signal and re-broadcasts it down all of the outgoing wires connected to it.Only used on star networksSends data to all devices
57What is a Switch?Stores addresses of every device down each wire leading from itself.Sends the packet only to the right addressReduces Network traffic.
58What is a Router?Decides what is the best path for a packet to travel between networks.Holds a routing table showing which route to take to a destination.
59Define the 3 types of Software? SystemPrograms which control the operation of the hardware resources (Windows etc)ApplicationA computer program custom written or pre-packaged that performs certain tasks (Word, Excel)UtilityDiagnostic tools (Scan Disk, Defrag etc)
60What is a Procedure?Instructions or rules that are followed by personnel in the organisation.
61What are some of the threats to data? Accidental Loss or damageDeliberate loss or damage (viruses, computer crime, hackers, vandalism)Internal (dissatisfied employees, viruses, inappropriate file deletion, copying of files)External (viruses, hackers, power fluctuations, computer crime)
62What are some physical security measures? Keyboard locksSecurity CamerasUPSSurge ProtectorsRestricted Access (key locks, swipe cards, finger print scans etc)
63What are the logical security measures? User names and passwordsAccess restrictions (access to certain areas of the network (Vlans), time restriction access)Audit Trails (record of who was logged in)Encryption (coded text)Firewalls (blocks entry to an organisation’s network from outside)Anti-virus software
64What is a Disaster Recover Plan? A strategy employed by an organisation to ensure that, whatever occurs, it can recover records as quickly as possible. It addresses all risks and plans provide the strategy to include checks, media to be used and storage requirements.
65What steps are in a Problem Solving Methodology? AnalysisDesignDevelopmentTestingDocumentingEvaluation
66What are the Design Tools that an organisation could use? IPO ChartData Structure TableFlow ChartLayoutStoryboardData Flow DiagramsDecision TablesData DictionariesOrganisation Charts
67How do you test a solution? Create test dataTest the limits of ranges, types of data, and formulasTest the messageTest the interfaceUser friendly
68What are the different types of User Documentation? Quick Start guideUser ManualTechnical guide or Software Reference ManualOn-line help
69How can you evaluate solutions? Surveys/questionnairesComparisonsObservations
70What does Project Management Involve? Planning, organising and monitoring a task undertaken by an organisation.
71What is Contingency Planning? Allowing some scope within the time frame of the project for some difficulties or unforeseen circumstances, without affecting the end date of the project.
72What is a milestone?Points throughout the project where components of the task should be completed and allow the project manager to evaluate the success of the project to date. They are shown as a diamond in a Gantt Chart.
73What is Slack Time?Slack time occurs when several tasks are done simultaneously and the shorter tasks are completed and therefore there is spare time while the longest task is completed. They are shown as dotted lines on a Pert diagram.
74What are Predecessors?Tasks that must be completed before the next task can start.
75What is the Critical Path? The longest route through the project and any task on this path that is not completed on time affects the completion date. It is shown in red on a Pert Diagram.
77What are the factors that cause Change in an Organisation? Government Policy (GST)Legislation (OH&S laws)Market TrendsCommunity Attitudes & ValuesCost/benefitsHealth & Safety (RSI)Competitiveness
78What are 6 Social Issues of Change? Job EnrichmentDeskilling (less skills needed)Health & Safety (less exposure to risk)Invasion of Privacy (Database details)Depersonalisation (ATM’s)Alienation (Powerlessness of people who lack the skills and knowledge needed to successfully use computer systems)
79What are 4 Economic Issues Causing Change? CostsProductivityProfitsObsolescence
80What is a Health & Safety Issue related to change? Ergonomics
81What is Ergonomics?The study of how humans and machines interact. It has led to the development of recommendations of how humans and computers should interact.
82What are the Physical Injuries that a worker can sustain? RSI (Repetitive Strain Injury – caused by repeating the same task over and over)Sprains & Strains (Incorrect posture can lead to back, neck and muscle strain)Eye Problems (Incorrect lighting or over-bright screens can lead to eye strain)
83What are three Safety Concerns When Managing Change? RadiationLong HoursStress
84What are the Legal & Ethical Issues when Managing Change? Software PiracyElectronic MonitoringIntellectual Property (Ownership of data)Environmental Issues (Old Equipment to be disposed of)
85What steps are in the SDLC? AnalyseDesignDevelopImplementEvaluate
86Analysis Involves 4 things. What are they? A feasibility Study (identifies nature and scope of the problem, proposes alternative solutions, describes costs/benefits and makes recommendations).Data Gathering (on how the system currently operates via interviews, observation, research, questionnaires etc)
87Analysis (2)Data Analysis (Graphical representation of how the system works)A Written report (Definition of the problem, how the system works, what needs to be changed and the recommended preferred solution).
88What does Design Involve? Draw up actual designsProcess design (the planning and monitoring of the project – PM)Solution Design (Input/Output requirements).
89What does Development Involve? Coding of the program or purchasing the S/W or H/W as well as testing.Components include:SoftwareHardwareUnit TestingSystem TestingInternal & External Documentation
90What are the 4 ways to implement a change? Direct ConversionTurn off Old system, start newParallel ConversionOld and new working togetherPhased ConversionOnly some parts of the system are changed over at any one time. Implemented in stages.Pilot ConversionEntire system implemented in one department or user group.
91How can users be trained? External CoursesIn-house trainingTrain the trainerTextbooksComputer based tutorialsHelp-linesUser ManualsUser groups
92How can a system be evaluated? Checking that the system meets the stated objectives.Surveying employees or customersObserving the systemTiming how long a task takesRecording any errors or faultsEvaluating the accuracy of the output
93When is the best time to evaluate a new system The best time to evaluate most information systems is between three and six months after implementation. Some systems, however, need to be evaluated after every cycle of information is produced.
94What do project resources consist of? Project resources consist of money, personnel and the equipment required to complete a particular task.
95Is it illegal to forward an email? YesAn can be protected by copyright just like, for example, an instruction booklet can
96Copyright Amendment (Digital Agenda) Act 2000 the Act aims to update the Copyright Act 1968 to take account of technological developments such as the Internet and cable TV.New right of communication for owners gives copyright owners the right to control how their work is electronically transmitted to the public or made available online.
97Copyright Amendment (Digital Agenda) Act 2000 (2) It encourages copyright owners to 'help themselves' to enforce their rights in the online environment by using technological copyright protection devices, such as access codes, encryption and software locks.
98Copyright Amendment (Computer Programs) Act 1999 On 12 August 1999 Australia's copyright law was changed to allow users to decompile or reproduce computer programs in certain circumstances without breaching copyright.What do the new laws allow me to do? allows you to reproduce a computer program· as part of the normal running of the program;· in order to study how it functions;· to make a back-up copy of the program;· to make an interoperable product;· to correct errors in the program; orto test its security.
99When is the IP&M Exam?Tuesday, 9th November3:00pm – 5:15pm
100What do you need to pass? Determination Study As many practice questions as you canA positive outlook