Presentation on theme: "Understanding and supporting your gifted child"— Presentation transcript:
1Understanding and supporting your gifted child Leonie NichollsMonday 17 March 2014
2Topics in tonight’s presentation Definitions of gifted and talentedCharacteristics of gifted learnersOverexcitabilitiesIntroverts and extravertsPerfectionismUnderachievementInfluence of parents on student achievement
3Giftedness and talent: What do they mean? Question: Aren’t all students gifted?
4Giftedness and talent: What do they mean? Everyone has a personal strength and also a personal weakness.We don’t confuse personal weaknesses with disabilities.Equally, we shouldn't confuse personal strengths with gifts.
5Giftedness and talent: What do they mean? Identifying a student as gifted doesn’t mean they are of greater worth than other students, just as identifying a student as developmentally disabled or physically disabled doesn’t mean they are of less worth.
6The Gagné Model of Giftedness and Talent Until mid-1980s, definitions of giftedness and talent used in Australia tended to be performance based.Children identified as gifted were usually the successful, motivated students who were already achieving.What about the children who had not been able to translate their high abilities into achievements?
7The Gagné Model of Giftedness and Talent Françoys Gagné’s model recognises and avoids this problem.‘Giftedness’ and ‘talent’ are not synonymous.They are two different stages in a highly able student’s journey from high potential to high performance.
8The Gagné Model of Giftedness and Talent Gagné’s definition of giftedness:The possession of natural abilities or aptitudes at levels significantly beyond what might be expected for one’s age, in any domain of human ability.
10The Gagné Model of Giftedness and Talent Giftedness = high ability Talent = high achievement
11How does giftedness become talent? Intrapersonal catalysts:Motivation and perseveranceConfidence in their abilitiesOrganisationConcentration
12How does giftedness become talent? Environmental catalysts:Milieu (surroundings)Significant personsSchool provisionsSignificant family/community events
13Some cognitive characteristics of intellectually gifted adolescents Ability to ask reflective and probing, sometimes provocative, questions.The capacity to see and create patterns and relationships in their field of special ability.Can become deeply absorbed in work they find interesting.
14Some cognitive characteristics of intellectually gifted adolescents Unusually fast rate of learning.Reasons at a level more usually found in a student some years older.Extremely well developed memory.
15Some cognitive characteristics of intellectually gifted adolescents Dislike of slow-paced work.Many gifted students have a preference for independent work.It is unusual for a gifted student to have only one area of high ability.
16Some affective characteristics of intellectually gifted adolescents Emotional intensityUnusual ability to empathise with the feelings of other students or adults.An unusually well developed sense of justice and fairness.
17Some affective characteristics of intellectually gifted adolescents An unusually mature sense of humour.Often prefer the companionship of older students.May develop a strong attachment to one or two close friends.
18Some affective characteristics of intellectually gifted adolescents Students with multiple talents have difficulty deciding on a career.Some gifted students can exhibit perfectionist tendencies.For some gifted students the need to develop their gifts and feel pride in academic achievement may clash with their need to be accepted by classmates.
19Social comparisonsSome gifted students learn, surprisingly early in their school careers, that to display abilities and opinions that are different than those of the majority of their classmates can lead to mockery and even ostracism.Some students may have been ‘dumbing down’ their abilities for years before coming to high school.
20PerseveranceWhen students are presented only with work which they can do effortlessly, they may never develop skills of time management, persistence or striving for success.Some students may associate speed with quality.
21The forced-choice dilemma Academically gifted students may be faced with a ‘forced choice dilemma’ if their desire to excel in their area of talent conflicts with their need to be accepted by the peer culture.
22Can gifted adolescents be ‘over-excitable’? Tendency towards physical restlessnessOften misinterpreted as a sign of emotional immaturityOverexcitability has positive connotations such as an insatiable love of learning, the capacity to care intensely for people and ideas, boundless energy, and a vivid imagination.
23The five ‘overexcitabilities’ IntellectualEmotionalImaginationalSensualPsychomotor
24Intellectual overexcitability A passionate love of learningAn enhanced capacity for analytical thinkingMeta-analysis (enjoys thinking about thinking)
25Intellectual overexcitability Sustained intellectual effort / much longer attention spanIntense curiosityUnwillingness to be satisfied with simplistic or incomplete answers
26Emotional overexcitability Unusual sensitivity to the feelings of other studentsMay develop a strong attachment to other peopleMay not easily forgive themselves if they have hurt someone’s feelings
27Emotional overexcitability Can be extremely self criticalMay become fond of places, as well as people
28Imaginational overexcitability Explain events or ideas in such great detail that adults beg them to get to the pointOften have a need to describe subtle nuances of a situation or interactionOften visualise situations very vividly
29Imaginational overexcitability May demonstrate a capacity to mix truth with fantasy for effectMay prefer to act out stories rather than simply telling them.
30Sensual overexcitability Unusual sensitivity to particular pieces of music or poetryMay enjoy the feel of particular materialsMay develop a liking for a particular objectSome develop a strong dislike of the texture of particular foods even if they like the taste
31Psychomotor excitability Surplus energy may show itself in compulsive talking and chatteringMay develop nervous habitsMay show a love of fast games and sports
32Psychomotor excitability May seem almost unable to stay in their seatMay have unusually rapid speech and exaggerated vocal expressionSome may be seem to be workaholics or compulsive organisersNot to be confused with ADD or ADHD
33Experiencing ‘flow’When a student who deeply loves what they are doing and is engaged in an activity where the level of challenge matches their level of ability, the experience can be totally absorbing and fulfilling.Csikszentmihalyi describes this feeling as being ‘in flow’
35Experiencing ‘flow’We can let ‘flow’ happen for our gifted students by presenting them with appropriate levels of challenge.Flow comes from optimal engagement with a task. It doesn’t come from doing, yet again, what one has been able to do for weeks, or months, or years.
36Introverts and Extraverts Introverts gain energy from within themselves; they tend to be reflective people who are ‘oriented towards the subjective world of thoughts and concepts’ (Silverman).Extraverts are more directed towards the world outside themselves and gain energy from other people or events.
37Introverts and Extraverts Introverts constitute a minority group in western societies (approximately 25% of the population).Studies of gifted adolescents and adults have found a much higher proportion of introverts.Gallagher (1990) studied more than 1,700 adolescents in programs for the gifted and found that 50% were introverted.
39Responding to the needs of introverts Give ‘wait time’Don’t interrupt themDon’t embarrass them in publicReprimand them privately rather than publicly
40Responding to the needs of introverts Let them observe in new situationsDevelop an ‘early warning’ systemDon’t push them to make lots of friendsDon’t try to make them into extraverts
41PerfectionismThe gifted adolescent’s intellectual and emotional characteristics are intertwined and closely influence each other.The personality trait of perfectionism is also influenced by factors in the young person’s environment and that this will influence whether the perfectionism is manifested in healthy or dysfunctional ways.
42Strategies to help perfectionists Talk to your adolescent about what perfectionism means to them - and to you.Is perfectionism a personality trait that you can recognise in yourself as well as in your child? Help to model appropriate responses.Point out positive but imperfect role models in the media
43Strategies to help perfectionists Learn to set priorities in your own life and help your child to do likewise.Help him or her to accept that making mistakes is a learning experience. Model your own acceptance of your mistakes.Teach the concept of ‘constructive failure’Help your adolescent to set high but realistic standards for himself/herself but not to expect other students to conform to these same standards.
44Strategies to help perfectionists Help them to understand that time, effort and not giving up will help them attain the standards they are setting – if these standards are indeed realistic.Work with your gifted adolescent to improve his or her self-evaluation skills.Avoid comparing your gifted adolescent to siblings or peers.
45Strategies to help perfectionists Support, nurture and encourage your adolescent in activities in areas of interest or passion which bring them enjoyment.Teach your adolescent that health is important. Don’t let study interfere with eating and sleeping.Seek professional counselling if your gifted adolescent becomes so fearful of failure or rejection that s/he becomes unable to act or make decisions.
46UnderachievementUnderachievement is widely recognised as a substantial discrepancy between potential and performanceGagné’s model clearly conceptualises underachievement
47Important factors that inhibit the development of gifts Low academic self efficacyForced choice dilemmaDouble-labelled studentsPerfectionism
48Important factors that inhibit the development of gifts BoredomDominant visual-spatial learnersMetacognition and cognitive inefficiency
49Teacher expectationsResearch strongly supports the view that high teacher expectations can positively influence student academic achievement (especially for underachieving students) Conversely, if a teacher holds low expectations for students, then the negative impact may be substantial.
50Profiles of gifted and talented students Created by Betts and NeihartAre useful for understanding gifted underachievers
51Type 1: SuccessfulWell behaved, conformist, seeks approval from teachers and adultsNeat, tidy, may be perfectionistSeeks order and structureDoes not take risksAchieves, but at levels significantly below their true ability
52Type 2: Challenging Can be obstinate, tactless, sarcastic Questions and challenges authorityCan be rude, arrogantUnpopular with peers but sometimes buys acceptance as class clownDoes not ‘suffer fools gladly’
53Type 1 and Type 2Type 2 students may be bored, angry and resentful that their abilities are not recognised and may ‘take it out’ on their teachers and other students.Unfortunately this decreases the likelihood of them being identified as gifted by teachers who associate giftedness with Type 1 behaviours
54Type 3: Underground Conceals ability for peer acceptance Strong belonging needsMay be insecure and anxiousMay feel guilty for denying their gifts
55Type 4: DropoutsMay be physically present in the classroom but intellectually/emotionally divorced from what is going on in itCan be depressed and withdrawn or angry and defensive
56Type 4: DropoutsInterests may lie outside curriculum and are not valued by teachers or classmatesExtremely low self-esteem; low performance
57Type 5: Double labelled (twice exceptional) Gifted students who are physically or emotionally disabled or with specific learning disabilitiesMay display disruptive behaviours through frustration
58Type 5: Double labelled (twice exceptional) May be confused about their ability to performVery frustrated when teachers ignore their gifts and focus only on their disabilities
59Type 6: Autonomous learners They use the system to succeedThey are confident enough to express their needs but do so in ways that teachers and peers will accept
60Type 6: Autonomous Independent and self-directed They don’t wait for others to do things for themThey are liked and respected by teachers and peers
61Type 6: AutonomousAll gifted students should be assisted to become autonomous learners
62Influence of parentsStudies of young people who grew up to be highly successful in their careers have found that the messages transmitted by their parents had a lot in common. Their parents:placed strong emphasis on trying to do one’s best, working hard and spending one’s time constructively.emphasised the importance of study, learning and school.
63Influence of parentstaught respect for individuality and tolerance for the points of view of others.recognised a balance of work and play.provided a balance of support and challenge.provided predictable and consistent expectations for conduct.
64Thank you Any further questions or comments on tonight’s presentation: