Presentation on theme: "What are carbohydrates? Why do we need carbohydrates?"— Presentation transcript:
1 What are carbohydrates? Why do we need carbohydrates? Intro: Answer the best you can. We will learn all this and much more this unit.What are proteins?Why do we need proteins?What are lipids (fats)?Why do we need lipids?What are carbohydrates?Why do we need carbohydrates?What are nucleic acids?Why do we need nucleic acids?
3 Elements Cannot be broken down into a simpler substance 90 occur naturally; the rest are synthetic or radioactive# of Protons gives characteristic nature – state, reactivity, etcMany are needed by Living Orgs. for 8 characteristics….
6 BiochemistryMost of the human body is made up of water, H2O, with cells consisting of 65-90% water by weight. Therefore, it isn't surprising that most of a human body's mass is oxygen. Carbon, the basic unit for organic molecules, comes in second. 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of just six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus.Oxygen (65%)Carbon (18%)Hydrogen (10%)Nitrogen (3%)Calcium (1.5%)Phosphorus (1.0%)
7 96% Living things are made up of the elements C,H,N,O (Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen)
8 Elements: ~25 elements are essential to life What are trace elements?Found in the body in very small amounts, yet play vital roles!
10 The Atom The charge of a proton = +1 (positive 1) The charge of an electron = -1 (negative 1)The charge of a neutron = 0 (neutral)The mass of a proton = about 1 amuThe mass of a neutron = about 1 amuThe mass of an electron is close to zero in comparison to protons and neutronsProtons and neutrons are found in the nucleusElectrons are found in orbitals outside the nucleusAtomic NumberMass Number
11 The Atom 4 - 2 = 2 atomic number = The number of protons The Atomic Mass = The mass of all protons, neutrons, and electrons.Number of neutrons = The atomic mass rounded – The Atomic numberOr since the electrons weigh near zeroNumber of Neutrons = Number of protons and neutrons – the number of protonsThe number of neutrons in Helium =4 - 2 = 2
12 Activity 1How many protons neutrons and electrons in the following atoms:a. Carbonb. Oxygenc. Iron
13 Activity 2: CarbonDraw an atom of Carbon. Identify the parts of the atom
14 Carbon Draw an atom of Carbon. Identify the parts of the atom Number of Protons 6Number of Electrons 6Number of Neutrons = = 6If there is no charge the number of protons = the number of electrons--6P6N----
16 What is the difference between an atom and an ion? An ion is a atom that has lost or gained an electron.
17 Ions have a different number of electrons than protons and therefore have a charge An atom that looses a(n) electron(s) becomes a cation or positively charged ionAn atom that gains a(n) electron(s) becomes a anion or negatively charged ion
27 Subscripts are used to tell you how many of that atom are present Ex. CO2 is composed of one carbon and 2 oxygen atomsCoefficients tell you how many molecules are present2(CO2) is telling you that there are two entire carbon dioxide moleculesA missing subscript or superscript means that there are only 1
28 What atoms are present and how many are in each compound? O2 = OxygenH2O = WaterCO2 = Carbon dioxide
29 What atoms are present and how many are in each compound? O2 is Oxygen2 Oxygen atoms
30 What atoms are present and how many are in each compound? H2O is Water2 Hydrogen atoms1 Oxygen atom
31 What atoms are present and how many are in each compound? CO2 = Carbon dioxide1 Cabon atom2 Oxygen atoms
33 In covalent bonding the electrons are _shared__ between the atoms In covalent bonding the electrons are _shared__ between the atoms. In Ionic bonding atoms are ____transferred____ from one atom to another. Covalent bonding forms ____molecules______. Ionic bonding forms __ions___.
34 Electrons are constantly in motion around the nucleus Electrons are attracted to the positive charges in the nucleus (protons) so they remain in orbit around the nucleusElectrons move around in energy levels called electron cloudsEach can hold a certain number of electrons-first level can hold up to 2 e--second level can hold up to 8 e--third level can hold up to 8 e-- 4th level – 18e-
35 The Atom: Electron clouds & “dot” diagrams Can hold a max of ___ e-’s1283418
36 Look at the periodic table to clear up any confusion… 28818
37 The Atom: Electron clouds EXAMPLE: Carbon has 6 electronsThey are arranged as:2 in the first e- cloud4 in the second e- cloud
38 Valence ElectronsElectrons in the outer orbital are called valence electrons.Valence electrons determine an elements bonding potential (or reactivity)An atoms outer orbital must be filled to be stableExample:How many valence e-’s does carbon have?How many does it “want” to be stable?
39 Chemical bonds: Forming a compound Bond – to join together atoms using electron energy/forceAtoms are most stable when their outer e- cloud is fullElements can share electrons to fill their outer (valence) e- cloudThis causes stability
40 1. Covalent bonds Figure 6.6 EXAMPLE: Oxygen alone only has 6 electrons in its outer E levelIf it shares 2 more it would have 8 in its outer E level and be stable”CO” = shareFigure 6.6
41 Single, Double and Triple Covalent Bonds 1 electron shared = single bondEx: C - H2 electrons shared = double bondEx: O = O
42 Write this on your notes somewhere Organic means something is based on carbonWhy is carbon important to life?Carbon has the ability to form four covalent bonds. It can bond on all sides.This allows it to form complex structures like proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids
43 2. Ionic bonds When atoms give or take electrons; not sharing The atoms with extra (or less) e- are now not neutral = ION = bond formsFigure 6.7
44 Bond StrengthsHow much energy is stored bond/How much energy it takes to break the bond1. Triple Covalent2. Double Covalent3. Covalent Single4. Ionic5. Hydrogen*
45 Chemical ReactionsBonds of atoms are broken and re-formed into new substancesReactions are written as “chemical equations” which show reactants and productsAll reactions in an organism = MetabolismWhat does balanced mean?
46 Chemical Reactions EXAMPLE – Photosynthesis 6CO H2O C6H12O O2ReactantsProductsElements in water become the elements in glucose!
47 End Day 1Work on page 1 of the study guide and the first question on page 2(5. BONDING: Compare and contrast “Ionic” and “Covalent” bonds.)
48 Day 2 Notes: Water Hydrophilic vs. Hydrophobic Hydrophilic – substances have affinity waterHydrophobic – substances that repel water; form clusters called hydrophobic interactions.Ex: Oil and H2OLike dissolves likePolar dissolves polarNon-polar dissolves non-polar
49 Intro Place the following bonds based on strength in the correct order (Hydrogen Bond, Triple Covalent Bond, Double Covalent Bond, Ionic Bond, Single Covalent Bond)Write down the following with the bonds in the right placeStrongest Bond18.104.22.168.5.Weakest Bond
50 What is polarity in a molecule? Polarity is when there are charged sides in an overall neutral molecule. Larger atoms tend to hog electrons and become slightly negativeOxygen is a neutral molecule but the oxygen side is slightly negative and the hydrogen side is slightly positive.
51 What is a hydrogen bond?A hydrogen bond is a polar bond where hydrogen is involved.There is an intermolecular attraction between positive and negatively charged sides of different moleculesHydrogen bonds in water
52 Properties of WaterIf there are other beings who have seen Earth, he said, they must surely call it “the blue planet.” The astronaut was referring to the blue appearance of the water in the oceans, which cover three fourths of Earth’s surface. Water is also the single most abundant compound in most living things.
53 Things to knowHydrogen bond – Because of positive and negative charges of water (polarity).Water attracts other water molecules.Cohesion- attraction between molecules of the same substance.Adhesion- attraction between molecules of different substancesAdhesion- Substance to glass (capillary action)
54 9 properties of water is a powerful solvent – can dissolve things is very cohesive (due to H bonds holding water together)Is very adhesive (due to H bonds with other things)Has capillary actionhas high surface tensionhas high specific heathas a high boiling point – a high heat of vaporizationis a good evaporative coolanthas a high freezing point and lower density as a solid than a liquid (density anomaly)
55 Water Properties1. Powerful, versatile solvent – due to polarity. Called the universal solvent
56 Water Properties2. Very Cohesive behavior (due to H bonds holding water together)
57 Water Properties3. Very Adhesive behavior (due to H bonds with other things)
61 Water is high vs. most molecules Specific heat: The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram 1°CWater is high vs. most moleculesSome common specific heats and heat capacities:SubstanceS (J/g 0C)Air1.01Aluminum0.902Copper0.385Gold0.129Iron0.450Mercury0.140NaCl0.864Ice2..03Water4.179
62 Water Properties7. High Boiling Point – High Heat of Vaporization
72 Day 3 Notes: Acids vs. Bases It is the presence of hydrogen ions(H+) relative to hydroxide(OH-) that determines a solution's pH.hydrogen ions(H+) are not usually found alone, instead they have a tendency to attract to a H2O and become hydronium ions (H3O)+
73 Acids vs. BasesThe molecules in pure water auto-dissociate into hydronium and hydroxide ions in the following equilibrium:2H2O ↔ OH− + H3O+hydroxide hydronium ions
74 Acids have a high concentration of H+ ions (called hydrogen ions or protons) Bases have a high concentration of OH- ion (called hydroxide ions)In pure water, there is an equal number of hydroxide and hydrogen ions, so it has a neutral pH of 7.A pH value less than 7 indicates an acidic solution, and a pH value more than 7 indicates a basic solution or “alkaline”.
75 pH: a measurement of hydrogen ions Acids = forms hydrogen (H+) ions in waterBases = forms hydroxide (OH-) ions in waterNeutral substances have a pH of 7Figure 2.10
76 Acid and Base StrengthAcid and Base STRENGTH is based on how many H+ are given up (acids) or attracted to (bases) OH-Water can’t equalize strong acids/basesbases and acids are used to neutralize each otherNeutralization reaction – acid + base water + salt (pH 7)NaOH (strong base) + HCl (strong acid) NaCl (salt) + H2O (water)
77 Measuring pH There are several INDICATORS to measure pH: pH paper litmus paperpH meter
78 Acids in the Biology HCl in stomach – involved in digestion Acidic blood – too much CO2 in body causes brain to speed up respiration (CO2 out and O2 in) blood more basicLactic acid build up – not enough O2 in muscles for aerobic respiration (soreness)Most food – slightly acidic
79 Bases in Biology Neutralize stomach acids (antacids) Bile salts – liver, pancreas – emulsify lipids (fats) in body for digestionBlood buffers - Blood has a pH of 7.4; bicarbonate keeps blood slightly basicMany poisons are basic…are foods?Many cleaners are basic…why?
80 Intro Quiz What is a ion? What is a isotope? Acids have a lot of what ion?Bases have a lot of what ion?What is the pH of a neutral ion?Draw a pH scale labeling the neutral, the acid side, the base side.Place the materials we tested in yesterdays lab on this scaleWhat is a heterogeneous mixture?
81 MacromoleculesLife molecules are base on big (Macro) carbon based (organic) molecules
82 Polymers are made of monomers All macromoleculesHave monomers (mono means one- a single units)Polymers are large chains of these monomersMonomerMonomerMonomerMonomerMonomerPolymer
83 Monomers are put together by dehydration synthesis
84 Monomers are put together by dehydration synthesis Gives off water (H2O)H2OMonomerMonomer
85 Monomers are broken apart by hydrolysis Takes water (H2O) Hydro (water) Lysis (destroying)H2OMonomerMonomer
86 Monomers are broken apart by hydrolysis Takes water (H2O) Hydro (water) Lysis (destroying)MonomerMonomer
87 4 life macromoleculesCarbohydrateLipid (Fat)ProteinNucleic Acid
88 CarbohydratesElements that make carbohydratesCarbon (C)Hydrogen (H)Oxygen (O)1:2:1 ration of C:H:OTwo H for every C and O
89 Monomer Monosaccharide Ex. Glucose and Fructose are isomers Have Same formula but different configurationBoth C6H12O 1:2:1 ratio
90 Carbohydrate- Function(s) in the cell 1. Quick Energy 2. Building BlockPlant Cells have cell walls made of Cellulose (a polysaccharide)Cellulose Cell Wall
91 Types of carbohydrates (the shorter the quicker energy) SPECIFIC ExamplesTypes of carbohydrates (the shorter the quicker energy)Monosaccharide: ex. glucose and fructoseDisaccharide (double monomer): ex. Sucrose (table sugar), Lactose (milk sugar)Polysaccharide (multiple monomers: ex. Starch, cellulose (plant cell walls)monosaccharide
92 LipidsElements that make LipidsMainly C and HSometimes O, P, N , and S
99 Monomer(s) Amino Acid Four levels of structure (very complex) Start with amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds20 types of amino acids commonly found
100 Monomer(s) Amino Acid Four levels of structure (very complex) Start with amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds20 types of amino acids commonly foundCalled Primary Structure (first level of four)
101 Monomer(s) Amino Acid Four levels of structure (very complex) Amino Acids are bonded together by peptide bonds20 types of amino acids commonly found
102 Protein function(s) in the cell Building blocks (provide the structure of living things)Catalyze reactions (make them occur easier)enzymes are proteins that serve this purpose
103 SPECIFIC Examples Enzymes- Catalyze reactions structural proteins- hair, nails, horns, and hoovesmuscles (all meats are protein)
104 Nucleic AcidsElements that make nucleic acidsO,H,C,N,P
105 Monomer(s)Nucleotides: Made of a base, sugar, and phosphate
106 Nucleic Acid Function in the cell 1. Transmit genetic material (heredity)
107 SPECIFIC ExamplesDNA- deoxyribonucleic acidRNA- ribonucleic acid
109 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes Enzymes are special proteinsUsually end in the suffix –aseThey speed up (also called catalyze) reactions
110 Chemical Reactions Reactants Products A + B C Reactants- react Products- producedActivation energy- energy needed to get a reaction startedEnergy can be gained or lost in a reaction
111 exergonic reaction gives off energy (Ex for energy exits) Endergonic ReactionExergonic ReactionTypes of reactions:exergonic reaction gives off energy (Ex for energy exits)endergonic reaction takes in energy (En for sounds like in)
112 An enzyme is a (protein) catalyst A catalyzed reaction is aided by an enzymespeeds up the reaction by lowering the activation energy (energy needed to get it started)reactions involving enzymes will conserve energy because the enzyme helps lower the activation energylower the _______energy.NormalReactionActivation energy (Uncatalyzed)CatalyzedReactionProductReactantActivation energy (Catalyzed)
113 Enzymes are specific to certain substrate ProductsEnzymes are specific to certain substrateAn enzyme like amylase only breaks down amylose (starch)Active SiteEnzyme-Substrate ComplexEnzyme
114 Enzyme at Work 1. Substrate binds at active site 2 Enzyme at Work 1. Substrate binds at active site 2. Enzyme breaks the substrate (reactant) down 3. Products are released 4. The enzyme is unchanged (not used up and can be used again)SubstrateProductsActive SiteEnzyme-Substrate ComplexEnzyme
115 Other Terms Metabolism: The sum of all chemical processes in cells Enzymes Help MetabolismThe Body Can Regulating Enzymes:Competitive Inhibitors: Bind to enzymes active site and block their intended activityDenaturing- changing shape of enzyme stops it from working
116 Competitive inhibitors can be used by the body to stop an enzyme from working SubstrateProductsCompetitive inhibitor: Stops the enzyme from working since the substrate no longer fitsActive SiteEnzyme-Substrate ComplexEnzyme