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Schizophrenia. Positive symptoms are those that happen in addition to the norm – ie delusions, hallucinations Negative symptoms are those that take away.

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Presentation on theme: "Schizophrenia. Positive symptoms are those that happen in addition to the norm – ie delusions, hallucinations Negative symptoms are those that take away."— Presentation transcript:

1 Schizophrenia

2 Positive symptoms are those that happen in addition to the norm – ie delusions, hallucinations Negative symptoms are those that take away from the norm – ie loss of pleasure, motivation, interest Diagnosis – Must have at least 2 of the following 5 symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganised speech, grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour, negative symptoms. Must have been present for more than 6 months and seriously affect ability to maintain normal functioning

3 Delusions Fixed false belief held with certainty. Persecution Reference Control Grandeur Thought broadcasting Thought insertion

4 Hallucinations Perceptual distortions of sensory information Can affect any of the senses but most often affects hearing (ie hearing voices) Voices are usually critical or unfriendly

5 Disorganised speech Derailment – rapid shifts from topic to topic Perseveration – constant repetition of words or phrases Neologisms – making up new words only they know Clang – meaningless rhyming words

6 Grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour Disorganised behaviour – behave inappropriately, dress strangely, poor personal hygiene Catatonic behaviour – can range from extremely agitated behaviour to none at all. Catatonic stupor Catatonic posturing Waxy flexibility

7 Negative symptoms Affective flattening Avolition (apathy) lack of energy or enthusiasm for anything Alogia (poverty of speech) may not say much or may use a lot of words but convey very little meaning L.A p783 Qu 2, 4, 7,

8 Biological factors Genetic predisposition Drug induced Changes in brain activity L.A p790 Qu 1a,b, 2, 5

9 Use of Medication Dopamine hypothesis – read cigarette article Anti psychotics work by blocking dopamine activity. They are therefore antagonists. L.A p793 Qu 1, 2, 3, 4c, 6


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