Presentation on theme: "Jia Xu and Colin Marsh Curtin University"— Presentation transcript:
1Jia Xu and Colin Marsh Curtin University Developing conceptual frameworks for effective school – based planning and curriculum developmentJia Xu and Colin MarshCurtin University
2Is it necessary and possible to have SBCD at schools in Australia? Is it necessary and possible to use conceptual frameworks to help us understand and develop more effective SBCD?
3SBCD in ChinaSBCD has been a highlight of China’s new curriculum reform since 1999.A curriculum policy change towards devolving partial power in curriculum decision-making to teachers.10% of curriculum is decided by local regions and individual schools.Transforming teachers’ role from “book-knowledge transmitters” to curriculum developers.
4Defining school-based curriculum development (SBCD) as: a slogan,a democratic philosophy,a practical series of steps.
5CaveatsSBCD is a constantly evolving term. It is very difficult to come up with a perfect form of SBCD.Although it is a desirable process for teachers to become involved in SBCD yet the hard realities of systems and governments necessitate limitations.
6What is a conceptual framework? It provides a structure for curriculum planning.It provides a coherent grouping of terms or values.It provides ideal goals.
7Some preliminary questions Is school-based curriculum development alive and well in in Australia?Is there a perfect type of school-based curriculum development and has it ever existed in a pure form?Do ideas about school-based planning change over the decades, for better or worse?
8Some different priorities of SBCD A democratic vision to have more teacher involvementA way of supplementing student resource materialsA way of addressing critical problems in an education systemA way to support systemic reforms and to enhance the professional skills of teachers
9How successful are current efforts to do SBCD in Asian countries ? An example from Hong KongAn example from Singapore
10SBCD in action in Hong Kong Innovative teachers are selected to be seed teachers and given special training at head office.Creation of new promotional positions of curriculum leader in each primary schoolSetting up of school-based support team in each education districtCelebration of exemplary efforts
11SBCD in SingaporeIntensive workshops on SBCD provided for all primary schoolsResearch activists appointed for each school to support a specific SBCD projectLearning journeys to other schools locally & overseasCelebration of successes through public presentations/workshops
12The Australian scene in 2011 Teaching has always been a complicated process.Teachers need to be able to do a number of things almost simultaneously, includingunpacking knowledge and ideas,making this accessible to others within a caring productive environment.
13New pressures for teachers New external pressures & ongoing internal, school level pressures.New external pressures:Australian Curriculum,NAPLAN,MY SCHOOL website,Professional standards for teachers.School-based planning and central planning working towards educational reform.
14General problems for doing SBCD Lack of timeLack of expertiseLack of financeExternally imposed restrictionsThreatening school climate (resistors or lack of effective leadership) (Marsh,1992).
15The arrival of the National Curriculum Materials produced so far for the first four subjects indicate that what ACARA is requiring is more than just general principles and outcomes for each subject area.There will be a major emphasis upon content and specifying of what is taught at each grade level.This will be reinforced through NAPLAN results in terms of literacy and numeracy. This will flow over into other subjects.
16Likely impactsTeaching will become more teacher-directed and focussed on content coverage.Teachers will try new initiatives enthused by the content and structures of the Australian Curriculum.OR
17Curriculum planning models These models are typically general and apply across various subjects and teaching levels.Models provide simple procedures for teachers to go about planning of lessons.prescriptive models (Tyler, 1949; Taba, 1962).Naturalistic Model (Walker, 1970).Understanding by Design model (Wiggins & McTighe, ).
18SBCD planning modelsIn situations where teachers want to get involved in school-based planning SBCD models need to be considered.It is important to remember that each school situation is very different and so it makes the task of developing SBCD planning models all the more difficult.
19Major categories of school-based models Models that create typologies of different variations of SBCDBrady (1987)Marsh et al (1990)Models that develop interlinked explanatory factors for successful SBCDWong Yu Lai Wah (2008)Lo Yiu Chun (1999)Lee (2008)Marsh (2009)
20Models that create typologies of different variations of SBCD Figure 1: Brady's matrix for analysis of SBCD in practice (Brady, 1987)
21AdvantagesIt indicates a number of combinations;It seems to indicate that any combination is possible;It illustrates three main processes well.DisadvantagesIt doesn’t show the influence of head office and how they could limit choices;It is a static model – just a list of categories;It doesn’t show which factors are more important than others.Figure 1: Brady's matrix for analysis of SBCD in practice (Brady, 1987)
22Models that create typologies of different variations of SBCD Figure 2: A three-dimensional model of SBCD (Marsh, 1990)
23Figure 2: A three-dimensional model of SBCD (Marsh, 1990) AdvantagesIt creates a dynamic, 3D picture;It shows a lot of different combinations;It seems to indicate that any combination is possible.DisadvantagesIt doesn't include all the important factors, only includes three;It doesn't show which factors are more important than others;It doesn't show the influence of head office and how this could limit choices.Figure 2: A three-dimensional model of SBCD (Marsh, 1990)
24Models that develop interlinked explanatory factors Figure 3: School-Based Curriculum Project Scheme, Hong Kong (Lo, 1999)
25Figure 3: School-Based Curriculum Project Scheme, Hong Kong (Lo, 1999) AdvantagesIt demonstrates clear focus of centrally controlled SBCD;It includes a celebration of successful efforts.DisadvantagesOnly limited SBCD can occur;Teacher empowerment is limited within planning and evaluation.Figure 3: School-Based Curriculum Project Scheme, Hong Kong (Lo, 1999)
26Models that develop interlinked explanatory factors Figure 4: Lee’s model of SBCD (2008)
27Figure 4: Lee’s model of SBCD (2008) AdvantagesIt is teacher focused and encourages empowermentIt is pragmatic - finding spaces/ opportunities.DisadvantagesIt underestimates influences of head office;It doesn’t clearly establish constraints.Figure 4: Lee’s model of SBCD (2008)
28Models that develop interlinked explanatory factors Figure 5: A model of implementing school-based curriculumin a subject (Wong, 2008)
29Figure 5: A model of implementing school-based curriculum AdvantagesHighlights importance of government initiatives;Includes a number of major factors;Indicates outcomes wanted for SBCD;Highlights the need for professional development;DisadvantagesProcesses depicted are complicated to understand;Over-emphasis on government initiatives.Figure 5: A model of implementing school-based curriculumin a subject (Wong, 2008)
30Models that develop interlinked explanatory factors Figure 6: A Conceptual Model of SBCD (Marsh, 2009)
31Figure 6: A Conceptual Model of SBCD (Marsh, 2009) AdvantagesIt highlights major factors, processes and desired outcomes;It includes a number of major elements;It gives clear indication of steps involved;It highlights the need for celebration of successful efforts.DisadvantagesIt under-estimates government constraints;Some factors listed are complex to understand.Figure 6: A Conceptual Model of SBCD (Marsh, 2009)
32Concluding commentMaking curriculum space available for SBCD is a major issue and it depends upon levels of cooperation between centralised and decentralised forms of curriculum development.There are a variety of SBCD approaches. The conceptual models outlined here provide just some of the possibilities.Because SBCD is closely related to local needs and priorities it is not possible to come up with one conceptual model which fits all.