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web notes: lect3.ppt buoyancy.pdf surface.pdf – not examinable

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BUOYANCY - FLOATING AND SINKING Why do ice cubes float on water? Why does a hot air balloon rise?

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What is wrong with the picture of the ship on the left?

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FGFG FBFB FTFT weight spring tension buoyant force F G = F T + F B fixed FBFB FTFT

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Archimedes' Principle When an object is completely or partially immersed in a fluid, the fluid exerts an upward force on the object equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. buoyant force FBFB

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FGFG FBFB weight buoyant force Floating: partially submerged Weight of object < weight of fluid that can be displaced by object Volume of displaced water < volume of object Weight of liquid displaced by partially submerged object = weight of object Water displaced

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FGFG FBFB weight buoyant force Floating: fully submerged Weight of object = weight of fluid displaced by object Volume of displaced water = volume of object Water displaced Static equilibrium Some fish can remain at a fixed depth without moving by storing gas in their bladder. Submarines take on or discharge water into their ballast tanks to rise or dive

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Why can ships float?

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A 200 tonne ship enters a lock of a canal. The fit between the sides of the lock is so tight that the weight of the water left in the lock after it closes is much less than the ship's weight. Can the ship float?

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Why does an object float? FLOATING: weight of object = buoyant force FBFB FGFG +

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Object partially submerged: object floats on surface h FF top bottom A oo mass of fluid displaced m F volume of fluid displaced V F mass of object m o volume of object V o V o > V F

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FGFG FBFB weight buoyant force + F G = F B m o g = m F g m o = m F o V o = F V F V o > V F o < F Object floating on surface Origin of buoyant force F B = (p bottom – p top ) A F B = (p atm + F g h – p atm ) A F B = F g h A = F V F g F B = m F g volume of fluid displaced V F = h A

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Object fully submerged: object floats under surface h FF top bottom A oo mass of fluid displaced m F volume of fluid displaced V F mass of object m o volume of object V o V o = V F w

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FGFG FBFB weight buoyant force + F G = F B m o g = m F g m o = m F o V o = F V F V o = V F o = F Object floating under surface Origin of buoyant force F B = (p bottom – p top ) A F B = (p atm + F g h – p atm – F g (h - w)) A F B = F g w A = F V o g = F V F g F B = m F g If o > F F B – F G < 0 object will accelerate downward and sink to the bottom.

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? A Two cups are filled to the same level. One cup has ice cubes floating on it. Which weight more? B Two cups are filled to the same level. One of the cups has ice cubes floating in it. When the ice melts, in which cup is the level higher?

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? A Two cups are filled to the same level. One cup has ice cubes floating on it. Which weight more? B Two cups are filled to the same level. One of the cups has ice cubes floating in it. When the ice melts, in which cup is the level higher? cups weigh the same the level is the same

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? Consider an object that floats in water but sinks in oil. When the object floats in water half of it is submerged, then oil is slowly poured on the top of the water so it completely covers the object. Will the object move up? stay in the same place? or move down?

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? When the oil is poured over the object it displaces some oil. This means it feels a buoyant force from the oil in addition to the buoyant force from the water. Therefore it rises higher

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A Cartesian diver can be made by completely filling an empty soft drink bottle with water. A medicine dropper is then placed in the bottle so that a small air pocket is trapped at the top of the dropper. When the bottle is squeezed, the medicine dropper sinks. When the bottle is release, the diver rises. Why does the dropper sink when the bottle is squeezed? Your answer should include a list of the important physical quantities involved, the names and descriptions of the physical principles involved.

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Solution Pascals Principle – when pressure is applied to an enclosed fluid, the pressure is transmitted undiminished to every point in the fluid and to every point on the walls of the container. the pressure exerted on the air pocket is increased Boyle’s Law p V = constant T = constant p increased V decreased Density = m / V V decreased increased average density of the dropper has increased Archimedes Principle – When an object is floating in a fluid, the fluid exerts an upward force on the object called the buoyancy force. This buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body * average density of object density of surrounding fluid object floats * average density of object > density of surrounding fluid object sinks Hence by squeezing the bottle, the average density of the dropper is increased and becomes larger than the surrounding fluid and the dropper sinks.

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? A giant clam has a mass of 470 kg and a volume of m 3 lies at the bottom of a freshwater lake. How much force is needed to lift it at constant velocity?

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F lift + F B FGFG a = 0m m = 470 kg F G = 4.61x10 3 N V clam = m 3 g = 9.8 m.s -2 water = 1.0x10 3 kg.m -3 F lift + F B = F G

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V displaced = V clam F = 0 F lift + F B = F G F lift = ? N F B = water g V displaced = water g V clam F G = m g F lift = F G – F B = m g - water g V clam F lift = (470)(9.8) – (10 3 )(9.8)(0.350) N F lift = 1.2 10 3 N

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A ring weighs N in air and N when submerged in water. What is the volume of the ring? What is the density of the ring? What is the ring made of ? air water FTFT FGFG F T = F G F T + F B = F G F T + F B

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A ring weighs N in air and N when submerged in water. What is the volume of the ring? What is the density of the ring? What is the ring made of ? airwaterFTFT FGFG F T = F G F T + F B = F G F T + F B know F T know F T and F G FB FB Archimedes’ Principle F B = weight of water displaced F B = F V ring g weight of ring F G and mass of ring m ring ring = m ring / V ring V ring = 3.0x10 -8 m 3 ring = 2.2x10 4 kg.m -3 maybe gold

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Practice Problem – see pdf file buuoyancy.pdf A wooden raft has a density of 10 3 kg.m -3 and dimensions of 3.05 m 6.10 m m. How deep does it sink into the water when unloaded? What is the maximum number of 70 kg people can the raft carry before it sinks?

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A hydrometer is a simple instrument used to measure the density of a liquid by measuring how deep it sinks in a liquid. A particular hydrometer was made of a uniform cylindrical rod that could float vertically in a liquid. The length of the rod was m and its cross sectional area was 2.00 m 2. The mass of the rod was 4.50 kg. To calibrate the hydrometer it is placed into water that had a density of 10 3 kg.m -3. How far from the bottom end of the rod should a mark of be placed to indicate the relative density of the water? The hydrometer sinks to a depth of m when placed into an alcohol solution. What is the density of the alcohol solution? Practice Problem – see pdf file buuoyancy.pdf

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