Presentation on theme: "Slide: 1 Coutts J&R Extension and Capacity Building ➔ Roberts Research."— Presentation transcript:
Slide: 1 Coutts J&R Extension and Capacity Building ➔ Roberts Research
Slide: 2 Projects National Extension/Education Review Establishing a web-based database Human Capacity (Empowerment) Indicators Better aligning extension to the VET sector Better understanding of the Consultant/ Mentor Model
Slide: 3 National Extension Review The Cooperative Venture for Capacity Building funded a two year review to look at the different ways that contemporary extension was being done around Australia – across different industries and different issues. They wanted to know what worked and why? The review developed a data base of extension programs and analysed projects in terms of the models that were being used and what factors contributed to successful implementation.
Slide: 4 Key findings Extension is a significant activity across rural and regional Australia Extension projects can't be considered in isolation Funders need to consider the whole capacity building ladder in their portfolio There are five clear models of extension There is an inherent rigour in each model
Slide: 5 Extension & Capacity Building “Extension is the process of engaging with individuals, groups and communities so that people are more able to deal with issues affecting them and opportunities open to them”. The outcome of extension is capacity building in individuals and communities.
Slide: 9 Emergent Models Info access Facilitation Tech Devt Mentor Consultant Training Increasing capacity building
Slide: 10 1.Facilitation Model. This model uses small on-going groups and focuses on increasing the capacity of participants in planning and decision-making and in seeking their own education/training needs based on their particular situation. Example: How do we make the most out of our farming business?
Slide: 11 Example: BESTWOOL 2010 The number of grower participants has exceeded the objective of 12% of woolgrowers - 75 grower groups involving in excess of 1106 enterprises Key elements: Groups choose their own facilitators (initial) funding to support facilitators Planning cycle to determine needs and priorities Take own actions in key areas Link into (other) projects running relevant training
Slide: 12 Documented impacts “A survey looking at the adoption of advanced marketing and price-risk management (a key practice change objective) showed that there has been a significant increase in the percent of BESTWOOL 2010 participants (36%) who have used these techniques compared to non-group members (13%). Importantly, the rate of increase has been significantly greater in the group members.”
Slide: 13 Sugar Cane Productivity Initiative Groups
Slide: 14 The FM works best when…. Participants themselves are the motivators behind it… An effective facilitator is used – selected/endorsed by participants… There are “champions” in the group… Participants put in some resources to the group effort… A planning/action cycle is used… Participants have some training in effective group processes… Meetings/happenings occur within at least every 60 days Members ‘benchmark’ where they are at – and relate to any changes… Funders set broad but distinct boundaries.
Slide: 15 2.”Training” Model This model delivers specified training (in terms of content) based on a needs analysis or demand. It can be delivered in an adult learning approach. Note people involved in the a ‘facilitation model’ often access courses provided under this model. Example: How do we identify and manage weeds that could cause problems in our region?
Slide: 16 Example: EdgeNetwork Based on adult learning approaches and different learning styles Development separate from delivery Trialed & evaluated before general delivery Use of local examples, practice concepts with own situation Mindful of follow-up
Slide: 17 The TM works best when… Courses are based on extensive market research and testing… Adult learning approaches are used… Different learning styles are catered for… Excellent quality control systems are in place… Timing works for the intended audience… Local practical examples are used… There are exercises to link the theory directly with participants’ own situations… There is follow-up in some way… If accredited (eg: under the VET system) – there is clear explanation about what that means and how to use it.
Slide: 18 3.Technology Development Model This model is about working with individuals and groups to develop specific technologies, management practices or decision support systems to improve their situation. Example: Let’s work together to tackle this invasive weed that is affecting many of our small farms in the region.
Slide: 19 Example: RWUE Hands on-visits – measuring, dirty feet… Local demonstrations – on farms Promotion, communication campaigns Link to training workshops Cross-stakeholder involvement Financial incentives Legislation etc in the background
Slide: 20 The TDM works best when.. Those affected identify and/or endorse issue as a priority.. All stakeholders are involved in trials and finding solutions. There is good communication between all groups… Good facilitation is available to help planning and actions.. There is a strong on-farm trial and demonstration program. Benchmarking is used to monitor change and success… Training is accessed when needed… Other supporting mechanisms are in place – for example incentives, regulations.
Slide: 21 4.Information Access Model This model is about providing information that is timely, practical and useful. It includes the growing role of the internet, information CDs and distance learning. It includes approaches to establish data bases, web sites, learning packs and call centres to deal with individual information seeking needs from a distance. Example: Here is website that lists the weeds relevant to our region, has photos and describes how to best control them.
Slide: 22 The IAM works best when… There are clear objectives and clear client groupings… Usage and feedback can be monitored and acted upon.. There is an opportunity to share information & experience with others… There are different levels, information pathways and media… Creativity and risk-taking is encouraged… There is “space” for people to play and experiment with information provided… Information is updated regularly.
Slide: 23 Exercise 1.Break into four groups – one to look at each of the models. 2.Select a facilitator/reporter for the group. 3.Share details of projects that you are aware of that fit within the model being discussed in your group. 4.As a group, choose the 3 most important elements from the model checklist that contributes to the success of this type of project. 5.Note any element you think is missing. 6.Share you findings with the whole group.
Slide: 24 Interaction between models The review found that to comprehensively address capacity building across an industry, issue or region each extension model was needed to be available to a critical mass of people in the industry, issue or region.
Slide: 25 5.The Consultant/Mentor Model This model is based on “extension” people working one-on-one on farm. It covers both general and specialists consultants and advisors as well as extension programs where individual farm visits are central components. Example: I’ve been to a course on weed control, looked up information but now to work out how to best apply this on my farm.
Slide: 29 The C/MM works best when… The ‘client’: Is organised and is clear about what they want… Negotiates a written ‘contract’ in terms of time, costs outputs, timeframes… Has as much relevant farm business data as possible ready to base decisions on… Sees it as a two-way relationship… ‘Walks’ around with the ‘consultant’ and participates in information gathering, analysis and decision-making… Makes the ultimate decisions themselves… Continues the relationship over time.
Slide: 30 Human Capacity Indicators This project looks at what questions to ask to assess change in human capacity (in the ‘higher skills’ for example critical thinking, planning, community cooperation, ability to negotiate) to maximise the opportunities for sustainability and profitability. Using the term “empowerment indicators”.
Slide: 33 Knowledge of processes needed to plan and address situations; An Attitude that ‘its up to us to own our situation and to proactively address it’; Skills in planning, effective communication, writing, time management, facilitation, problem solving, leadership, approaching institution, financial management. Aspirations to be proactive and take whatever initiatives are possible. Changes in Knowledge, Attitude, Skills & Aspirations (KASA) Increase of: Critical thinking; Conceptual knowledge; Planning Communication Writing project application skills Effectiveness/ “sense of efficacy” Time management Facilitation Conflict resolution/ negotiation Problem solving Motivation Community cooperation/ networks Leadership Access to institutions (political, legal, economic, social) Financial independence (cf. welfare dependence) Practice changes Innovative individuals and communities taking initiative to continuously improve their situation, effectively addressing issues facing them and taking up opportunities as they are presented. Social- economic- environment al outcomes
Slide: 34 Understanding of the planning process. Ability to take oneself or a group through a planning process and cycle. Specific planning that has been initiated/ undertaken at what level Examples of better outcomes (social, economic or environmental) Planning Ability to understand and interpret data/ activities/ project. Level of comfort in facing new situations, difficult problems etc Ability to move from the abstract to the concrete and vice versa. Conceptual knowledge Ability to: Reflect, take into account the wider context, look across alternative solutions and to think ‘outside the square’. Provide examples of how problems/issues addressed Use hypotheticals/scenarios to see how people would respond Critical thinking Indicators of elementsElements of empowerment
Slide: 35 Individual interviews (start and end). Group workshop (start and end). Case studies/’stories’ (with examples of critical thinking). Observation – project records recording actions. Role plays Critical thinking Suggested methods of data collection (indicators and measurements/ data items will largely be context dependent and be determined by available resources, staff, existing data etc) Empowerment Components The different data collections techniques are explained together with the type of data/questions that can be used specifically for empowerment indicators.
Slide: 36 Measuring ➔ How relaxed are you about being part of a community /industry group? ➔ How comfortable are you in putting your opinions forward – even when they might differ from others in the group? ➔ How sure are you about your ability to engage with the local council (or industry body) about an issue that affects you? or.. Please describe how you might go about seeking funding assistance for a locally based natural resource management project?....... [answer demonstrated a little (2/5) understanding/confidence]
Slide: 37 3. Better aligning extension to VET Despite many workshop programs and courses now being linked into the VET system, it appears to be poorly understood by many facilitators and participants alike and there is a poor uptake of the accreditation advantages.
Slide: 38 Cons & Land Mnt Training Package Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Competencies Recognition of Prior Learning work experience (RPL/RCC) Past training courses (RCC) Current Training Course Further training required Accredited through an RTO and recognised courses delivered by a registered trainer. Audited by state Rural Training Council. Can draw units & competencies from other Training Packages The ‘student’ is required to put work into collating evidence of RCCs. The RTO assess these against required competencies. Certificate 1-4 Diploma Advanced Diploma Higher Education degrees
Slide: 39 Manual for Program Leaders Purpose of this manual Why accredit extension programs? What is AQTF and VET What are Rural Training Packages Registered Training Organizations (RTOs) Importance of FarmBis What process is needed to accredit an extension program Case Study - Waterwatch
Slide: 40 Ability to use a property map to analyse fence locations, develop a plan to realign fences according to different needs and property characteristics and to understand the implications for stock management, and environmental consequences. 6 Ability to describe all of the different types of fences on a property and explain why they are built and located as they are. 5 Ability to supervise a fence being built and explain the process and logic for the choice. 4 Ability to build a fence, put a gate in it and explain why the fence was chosen and the placement of the gate. 3 Ability to describe all the different fences that can be built and how they would be built. 2 Ability to look at the picture and point out the fence1 Example of Unit of CompetencyLevel
Slide: 41 Establish that there is a market for the intended course. (number of people x location x time). Clarify intended training – general content, desired outcomes, target audience. Step 1 Establishing the Need ResultDoneActionsSteps Name of Training Program: Checklist for accrediting an extension training program
Slide: 43 Diverse and relevant communities of practice collaborate in creating a shared agenda. Inter-related strategies encompass all aspects of capital improvement - human, social, financial, physical and natural. Stated assumptions reflect a collaborative learning paradigm Consistency between desired outcomes, methodology, and the monitoring and evaluation strategy. Access to the resources needed for success. Improvements in the stock of capital are generated through participation in situation-improving activities, and related learning activities. Criteria to guide capacity building…
Slide: 44 Institutional arrangements within a culture are taken to be... a)gazetted laws and regulations, b)commonly accepted but not legally binding rules and guidelines, and a)organisations established by the culture. Institutional arrangements are based on customs and traditions, and mediated by the belief system and values apparent in world-views.
Slide: 45 Institutional factors impacting on effective capacity building. Helping (+)Hindering (-ve) Capacity building
Slide: 46 Fostered by: Action orientation Facilitative leadership Collaborative learning approach Goal of continuous improvement Diverse CoPs creating a shared agenda Adequate resources - aligned with needs Consistency between goals, methodology, M&E Alignment of mindsets and institutional arrangements Agenda to improve all or most forms of capital Reflective practice Capacity building is construed as externally or internally initiated processes designed to help individuals and groups associated with rural Australia to appreciate and manage their changing circumstances, with the objective of improving the stock of human, social, financial, physical and natural capital in an ethically defensible way. Hindered by: Command & control management Problem-solving mentality Centralised approach Institutional inertia Cultural barriers Hero leadership Short timelines Silo mentality HUMAN SOCIAL NATURAL PHYSICAL Knowledge, skills and attitudes developed Communities and organisations functioning well FINANCIA L Incomes secured and investment funds accessed Infrastructure developed Natural resources sustained RELEVANT FOCUSED A IMPROVED COMMUNITIES … participate in a … TRANSFORMATION … whose outcome is …STOCK OF OF PRACTICEPROCESSCAPITAL The contribution of Terry Makin to the design of this graphic is gratefully acknowledged