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Introduction to animal cell culture. CELL CULTURE Why do it ? - Research - Diagnosis.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to animal cell culture. CELL CULTURE Why do it ? - Research - Diagnosis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to animal cell culture

2 CELL CULTURE Why do it ? - Research - Diagnosis

3 Tool for the study of animal cell biology In vitro model of cell growth Mimic of in vivo cell behaviour Artificial (some cell types are thus difficult to culture) Highly selective environment which is easily manipulated

4 Cell Culture is a Fussy Discipline In the area of the laboratory assigned for tissue culture: benchtops should be kept clear and clean and not used for other work wearing a long sleeve gown when working in the tissue culture area minimises contamination from street clothing (hair, fur etc) wearing gloves while doing tissue culture work also minimises contamination from skin organisms solutions, reagents and glassware used in tissue culture work should not be shared with non-tissue culture work

5 Primary application of animal cell culture in the investigation of: The mechanisms of cell cycle control The production of cells for biochemical analysis The characteristics of cancer cells The detection of stem cells The detection, production and function of growth factors and hormones The detection and production of viruses The study of differentiation processes The study of specialised cell function The study of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions

6 Primary vs Cell line Primary culture – freshly isolated from tissue source Cell line – culture that has been passaged Finite cell line: dies after several sub-cultures Finite cell line: dies after several sub-cultures Continuous cell line: transformed ‘immortal’ Continuous cell line: transformed ‘immortal’

7 Passaging or sub-culture Cell dissociated from flask Split 1 in 2

8 Contact inhibition

9 Initiation, establishment and propagation of cell cultures

10 Cultures can be initiated from tissue or organ fragments tissue or organ fragments single cell suspensions single cell suspensions Choices to be made Disaggregation techniques Disaggregation techniques Media Media Culture conditions Culture conditions Selection procedures Selection procedures

11 Considerations Sensitivity to mechanical dispersal or enzymes; cell-cell contact may be required for proliferation Dispersed cells in culture are vulnerable Most primary cells require satisfactory adherence Some cells are not normally adherent in vivo and can be grown in liquid suspension In a mixed primary culture differences in growth rate may mean a loss of the cell type of interest – selection techniques Some cell are prone to spontaneous transformation Limited life span of some cultures

12 (1) Dispersal of tissues Mechanical Mincing, shearing, sieves Mincing, shearing, sievesChemical Enzymatic (proteases) Trypsin, pronase, collagenase, dispase Trypsin, pronase, collagenase, dispase Can be a combination

13 The cell culture environment

14 Factors affecting cell behaviour in vivo The local micro-environment Cell-cell interactions Tissue architecture Tissue matrix Tissue metabolites Locally released growth factor and hormones

15 (2) Culture Surface Most adherent cells require attachment to proliferate Change charge of the surface Poly-L-lysine Poly-L-lysine Coating with matrix proteins Collagen, laminin, gelatin, fibronectin Collagen, laminin, gelatin, fibronectin

16 (3) Media formulation Initial studies used body fluids Plasma, lymph, serum, tissue extracts Plasma, lymph, serum, tissue extracts Early basal media Salts, amino acids, sugars, vitamins supplemented with serum Salts, amino acids, sugars, vitamins supplemented with serum More defined media Cell specific extremely complex Cell specific extremely complex


18 Media Formulation Inorganic ions Osmotic balance – cell volume Osmotic balance – cell volume Trace Elements Co-factors for biochemical pathways (Zn, Cu) Co-factors for biochemical pathways (Zn, Cu) Amino Acids Protein synthesis Protein synthesis Glutamine required at high concentrations Glutamine required at high concentrationsVitamins Metabolic co-enzymes for cell replication Metabolic co-enzymes for cell replication Energy sources glucose glucose

19 Serum provides the following Basic nutrients Hormones and growth factors Attachment and spreading factors Binding proteins (albumin, transferring) carrying hormones, vitamins, minerals, lipids Protease inhibitors pH buffer

20 Freshney.(1992) Animal Cell Culture.

21 (4) The gas phase Oxygen Aerobic metabolism Aerobic metabolism Atmospheric 20% Atmospheric 20% Tissue levels between 1-7% Tissue levels between 1-7% Carbon dioxide Buffering Buffering

22 (5) pH Control Physiological pH 7 pH can affect Cell metabolism Cell metabolism Growth rate Growth rate Protein synthesis Protein synthesis Availability of nutrients Availability of nutrients CO 2 acts as a buffering agent in combination with sodium bicarbonate in the media

23 (6) Temperature and Humidity Normal body temperature 37 o C Humidity must be maintained at saturating levels as evaporation can lead to changes in Osmolarity Osmolarity Volume of media and additives Volume of media and additives

24 Mouse Myogenic Cells (H-2Kb) - grown on fibronectin in 8 well slide in culture, fixed and stained for desmin

25 Contamination Minimise the risk

26 Sources of Contamination BacteriaFungiMouldYeastMycoplasma Other cell types Free organisms, dust particles or aerosols Surfaces or equipment

27 Class II Biological Safety Cabinet Protection of personnel environment product Class 1 Cabinets protect the product only

28 Vertical Laminar Airflow Air Barrier Exhaust Fan Exhaust HEPA Filter Laminar Flow Fan Laminar HEPA Filter Class II Biological Safety Cabinet HEPA filters Laminar flow NATA certified

29 “Sitting or standing with no movement, wearing cleanroom garments, an individual will shed approximately 100,000 particles of 0.3um and larger per minute. The same person with only simple arm movement will emit 500,000 particles. Average arm and body movements with some slight leg movement will produce over 1,000,000 particles per minute; average walking pace 7,500,000 particles per minute; and walking fast 10,000,000 particles per minutes. Boisterous activity can result in the release of as many as 15x10 6 to 30x10 6 particles per minute into the cleanroom environment.’

30 Aseptic Technique 1 Controlled environment Traffic, air flow Traffic, air flow Sterile media and reagents Avoids aerial contamination of solutions Avoids manual contamination of equipment

31 Aseptic Technique 2 Minimise traffic Clear work area 70% ethanol swab Minimise work area (field of vision) Keep work area clean Do not lean over open vessels UV irradiation before and after Only use disposable equipment once

32 Aseptic Technique 3 Minimise exposure to air Flame bottles if on open bench Avoid repeated opening of bottles Avoid liquid accumulation around necks and lips of bottles Avoid excessive agitation Only one cell type at a time Do not open contaminated solutions No burner in hood

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