The Curriculum: A Search for Meaning ESP410 – Human Movement Pedagogy 3
Background Lack of consensus about the meaning of curriculum: "A survey of a dozen curriculum books would be likely to reveal a dozen different images or characterisations of curriculum. It might even reveal more because the same author may use the term in different ways."
Curriculum Definitions: Curriculum is "all the planned experiences provided by the school to assist the pupils in attaining the designated learning outcomes to the best of their abilities." Neagley and Evans
Curriculum Definitions: Curriculum is the substance of the school program. It is the content pupils are expected to learn. Orlosky and Smith
Curriculum Definitions: A curriculum is the set of instructional strategies teachers plan to use. Posner A structured series of intended learning outcomes. Johnson
Curriculum Definitions: The planned experiences offered to the learner under the guidance of the school. Wheeler Curriculum is the planned composite effort of any school to guide pupil learning toward predetermined learning outcomes. Inlow
Curriculum Definitions: Classroom practice... what happens between teacher, children and the content... is the curriculum. Boomer
Input into Curriculum Content Governments -increase productivity of human resources Business Community -means by which students gain the requisite knowledge and skills to make them productive workers -ie outcomes relevant to employment opportunities and needs
Input into Curriculum Content Parents -views often shaped by their own experiences as students as well as by the aspirations they have for their children Students -personal, social, vocational aspirations
The Curriculum "If curriculum is seen as the means by which young people and adults gain the essential knowledge, skills and attitudes they need to be productive and informed citizens in a democratic society, then everyone in the community has a stake in the shape and form that the curriculum takes." Brady and Kennedy
The Curriculum Process The development of a curriculum involves the developer in decisions about the nature and appropriateness of the substantive elements, eg the: objectives content method assessment strategies These decisions are made in relation to the context in which the curriculum will operate.
Situation Analysis An appraisal of the situation (situation analysis) informs decisions about each curriculum element.
Situation Analysis It is the process of examining the learning context in which the curriculum is to operate: eg characteristics of the: school staff students
Situation Analysis Normally undertaken prior to the process of curriculum development, but it should not be seen only as a preliminary step only.
Situation Analysis Involves: Needs assessment - educational needs, and - determining priorities on the basis of these needs.
Situation Analysis Involves: School audit -questioning current provision and practice -eg in terms of : assessment reporting student welfare parent-community relationship school management
Situation Analysis Involves: Analysis factors that constitute the situation: External: –cultural and social change –educational system requirements –the changing nature of subject matter –resources
Situation Analysis Involves: Analysis factors that constitute the situation: Internal: Students -needs -abilities -personal characteristics Teachers -abilities -teaching style -strengths / weaknesses
Situation Analysis Involves: Analysis factors that constitute the situation: Internal (cont): School ethos -organisational climate -traditions Resources -materials -equipment -facilities