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A&HB 3313. SKILLS FOR YOUR GROUP PROJECT: LITERACY, PUBMED, ENDNOTE, BASIC STATISTICS. Miranda Grounds and Hannah Radley.

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Presentation on theme: "A&HB 3313. SKILLS FOR YOUR GROUP PROJECT: LITERACY, PUBMED, ENDNOTE, BASIC STATISTICS. Miranda Grounds and Hannah Radley."— Presentation transcript:

1 A&HB 3313. SKILLS FOR YOUR GROUP PROJECT: LITERACY, PUBMED, ENDNOTE, BASIC STATISTICS. Miranda Grounds and Hannah Radley

2 Searching for scientific literature. A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 2  Scientific literature is vital – text books, book chapters, journal articles or conference abstracts.  PubMed  UWA library - online access and hardcopies.  Google Scholar  Ask academic consultants – homepages, re-prints.

3 PubMed A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 3 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/  PubMed is a search engine you can use to access scientific journal articles on-line (biological and medical).  Journal articles are not free, it is necessary to use a UWA computer the access the journals.  TASK #1 – Search for articles relevant to your project. - Academic consultant, Miranda Grounds or me.

4 EndNote A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 4 http://www.endnote.com/  EndNote is an excellent referencing programme that allows you to create a library of journal articles  inserts citations and automatically create bibliography.  All computers in G.03 have Endnote 11installed on them. Also, students are entitled to have endnote installed on their personal computers. They can download the installer by going to https://software.webservices.uwa.edu.au/Login.aspx

5 How to make an EndNote library A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 5  Open EndNote  Create new library  Save  Manually insert reference OR  Tools  Connect  PubMed  3 windows – Library, Search window, search results.  Search for article in PubMed through EndNote.  Move search result in EndNote into library  highlight article  Copy all references to.

6 Endnote and Microsoft Word A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 6  Open you word document.  Open your endnote library (Office 2007 – Add Ins, Office 2003 – endnote toolbar).  Highly recommend turn off ‘Cite while you write’.  Highlight the appropriate reference in the library.  Insert citation {Radley, 2008 #library}.  When document is complete you can choose a referencing style and create the bibliography  updates citation in text and creates bibliography at end of the document.

7 Endnote - TASK #2 A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 7  Practice the following: - Create a new library and import a citation - Manually insert a reference into your library. - Put a citation into a word document. - Create a bibliography in word. - Un-format and re-format your document - Examine different output styles – Author/Date or one specific to a particular journal.

8 Projects - Planning A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 8  Page 16 – 21 in handbook (orange sheets).  Group project outline due by 9am on Wednesday 18 th March.  Designate tasks among group members.  Plan ahead – book time in CELLCentral and with your supervisors.  Image capture and analysis can be time consuming.

9 Projects – Experimental A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 9  Experimental Design: - Sample populations : age & sex matched. - N (number of animals, tissue sections). - Appropriate controls. - Fixation and preparation. - What are you testing and how will you measure it?  In the lab: - Accurate, consistent (reduce variation). - Label everything. - Write everything down as you go (methods).

10 AB Figure 1. ChAT (Choline-acetyl transferase) positive neurons in coronal sections through the basal forebrain (indicated by arrow symbol). There is an increase in both the number of positive neurons and staining intensity in B – wildtype male mice in comparison to A- hypogonadal male mice. Scale bar represents 50um for both images. Projects – Descriptive result. TASK #3. Eleanor Drummond 2008.

11 Projects – Results and statistics A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 11  Descriptive statistics – mean, mode, median.  Average of ‘test’ group vs average of ‘control’ group. GroupAvg Test6.14 Control9.61

12 Projects – Results and statistics A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 12 GroupABCDEFGHAvgSt Dev Test5.26.27.85.24.87.25.67.16.141.11 Control8.89.68.910.110.810.38.99.59.610.73 Data set has low variation (small standard deviation)

13 Projects – Results and statistics A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 13 GroupABCDEFGH Avg StDev Test7.23.210.82.27.85.29.63.16.143.20 Control11.86.412.96.512.89.39.97.39.612.53 Variation within groups is very important Data set has high variation (large standard deviation) Difference between groups is less convincing.

14 A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 14  Are the groups significantly different (difference did not occur by chance) ? - T-test = difference between the means of 2 groups (P<0.05). - Anova = compare multiple groups (assumptions, post hoc tests) - Standard deviation – How much variation there is in the sample group – the spread away from the mean. - Standard Error – SD adjusted for sample size Projects – Results and statistics

15 A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 15 Graph and caption – TASK #4. A A B * B B C * Figure 1. Final bodyweights of 24 week old male C57Bl/10 and mdx mice. There is a significant (*) increase in bodyweight of both C57Bl/10 and mdx mice after consuming a high fat diet (P<0.05). Bars represent standard error and n = 8 mice per group. A,B,C denotes significant difference between groups, groups with different letters are significantly different from each other.

16 Projects – Report & seminar A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 16  Abstract (200 words – summary)  Introduction (literature review – citations in text)  Methods (including statistical method)  Results (all graphs and pics labelled appropriately)  Discussion  Conclusion  Acknowledgements  References – use EndNote

17 A&HB 3313 Hannah Radley 17  No lecture on Monday March 30 th – all covered in today’s tute.


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