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Introduction to Microbiology Dr. Sudheer Kher Prof & HOD, Dept of Microbiology.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Microbiology Dr. Sudheer Kher Prof & HOD, Dept of Microbiology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Microbiology Dr. Sudheer Kher Prof & HOD, Dept of Microbiology

2 Objectives Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Koch, Pasteur, van Leeuwenhoek, Lister, Ehrlich, Fleming, and Jenner Describe the system of scientific nomenclature used to name microorganisms List major groups of microorganisms and their habitats

3 Introduction to Microbiology Dept of Microbiology Microbiology –Clinical Microbiology –Medical Microbilogy Scope & Branches of Microbiology Theory, Practicals, Exams Basic functioning of Micro Lab Universal Safety Precautions

4 Historical YEARNAMEACHIEVEMENT 1 st century BCVaroConcept of Animalia minuta 1546FracostoriusContagion- Cause of syphilis 1590JensenHand lens 1683Antony van Leeuwenhoek First Microscope Animalcules 1678Robert HookCompound microscope 1745Needham (Priest)Abiogenesis 1836Schulze & SchwanAir contains microbes 1840Oliver Homes, Poet physician Contageousness & Puerperal fever 1846Ignaz SemmelweisCause, concept & prophylaxis of child-bed fever 1853Augustino BassiSilk worm disease due to a fungus

5 Louis Pasteur French chemist Wine industry problem Father/Founder of Modern Microbiology Fermentation – a microbiological process Beer/Wine not produced without microbes

6 Louis Pasteur Methods & Techniques of cultivation His discovery that most infectious diseases are caused by germs, known as the "germ theory of disease," is one of the most important in medical history. Introduced sterilization Tyndalization (Tyndal-1877) Studied Silkworm disease, anthrax, chicken cholera, hydrophobia.

7 Louis Pasteur Introduced live vaccines – Jenner (Cow-pox vaccine) Antirabic vaccine Pasteur Institutes

8 Joseph Lister 1867 Prof of Surgery, Glasgow Royal Infirmatory Introduced Antiseptic Surgery Called Father of Antiseptic Surgery

9 Robert Koch German general practitioner Perfected bacteriological techniques Isolated pure cultures of bacteria for the first time Discovered Anthrax bacilli, Cholera vibrio, M. tuberculosis Father of Medical Microbiology Hypersensitivity



12 Historical YEARNAMEACHIEVEMENT 1902Walter ReedYellow fever in Cuba – viral nature 1909LandsteinerPolio transmission 1929Alexander FlemingFirst antibiotic - Penicillin Good pasture Ruska Virus cultivation 1941FluryUse of Penicillin therapeutically



15 Highlights in the History of Microbiology 1677 Observed "little animals" (Antony Leeuwenhoek) (Antony Leeuwenhoek) 1796 First scientific Small pox vaccination (Edward Jenner) (Edward Jenner) 1850 Advocated washing hands to stop the spread of disease (Ignaz Semmelweis) (Ignaz Semmelweis) 1861 Disproved spontaneous generation (Louis Pasteur)(Louis Pasteur) 1862 Supported Germ Theory of Disease (Louis Pasteur) (Louis Pasteur) 1867 Practiced antiseptic surgery (Joseph Lister)(Joseph Lister)

16 Highlights in the History of Microbiology 1876 First proof of Germ Theory of Disease with B. anthracis discovery (Robert Koch) (Robert Koch) 1881 Growth of Bacteria on solid media (Robert Koch) 1882 Outlined Kochs postulates (Robert Koch) 1882 Developed acid-fast Stain (Paul Ehrlich) (Paul Ehrlich) 1884 Developed Gram Stain (Christian Gram) (Christian Gram) 1885 First Rabies vaccination (Louis Pasteur) (Louis Pasteur)

17 Highlights in the History of Microbiology 1887 Invented Petri Dish (R.J. Petri) 1892 Discovered viruses (Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovski) (Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovski) 1899 Recognized viral dependence on cells for reproduction (Martinus Beijerinck) (Martinus Beijerinck) 1900 Proved mosquitoes carried the yellow fever agent (Walter Reed) (Walter Reed) 1910 Discovered cure for syphilis (Paul Ehrlich) (Paul Ehrlich) 1928 Discovered Penicillin (Alexander Fleming) (Alexander Fleming)

18 Highlights in the History of Microbiology 1977 Developed a method to sequence DNA (W. Gilbert & F. Sanger)(W. Gilbert & F. Sanger) 1983 Polymerase Chain Reaction invented (Kary Mullis)(Kary Mullis) 1995 First microbial genomic sequence published (H. influenzae) (TIGR)(H. influenzae)(TIGR)

19 Nomenclature Scientific name (Systematic Name) Binomial System of Nomenclature –Genus name + species name Italicized or underlined Genus name is capitalized and may be abbreviated Species name is never abbreviated A genus name may be used alone to indicate a genus group; a species name is never used alone eg: Bacillus subtilis B. subtilis

20 Nomenclature Common or descriptive names (trivial names) –Names for organisms that may be in common usage, but are not taxonomic names eg: tubercle bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) meningococcus (Neiserria meningitidis) Group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes)

21 Nomenclature For viruses - common names are used e. g. Polio virus, HIV, Influenza virus For parasites – Either binomial or common names are used e.g. –Round worm, Ascaris lumbricoides, A. lumbricoides –Dog tape worm, Echinococcus granulosus, E. granulosus



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