Presentation on theme: "Faye S Taxman, Ph.D., University Professor George Mason University Center for Advancing Correctional Excellence! www.gmuace.org."— Presentation transcript:
Faye S Taxman, Ph.D., University Professor George Mason University Center for Advancing Correctional Excellence! www.gmuace.org
Justice Reinvestment Look at the impact of incarceration practices on society, and alter the use of incarceration Reinvest in crime prevention as a tool of reducing impact of mass incarceration policies Address social disparities result from mass incarceration policies
Correctional Spending Absorbs Resources: Books vs. Bars Spending increases between 1987 and 2007 Higher EducationCorrections +127% +21% Source: The Pew Charitable Trusts, 2008. One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008.
The United States has the highest prison population rate in the world, 756 per 100,000, followed by: Russia (629) Rwanda (604) St Kitts & Nevis (588) Cuba (531) U.S. Virgin Is. (512) British Virgin Is. (488) Palau (478) Belarus (468) Belize (455) Bahamas (422) Georgia (415) American Samoa (410) Grenada (408) Anguilla (401) Nearly 3/5 of countries (59%) have rates below 150 per 100,000. Sources: The Pew Charitable Trusts, 2010. Collateral Costs: Incarceration’s Effect on Economic Mobility. Walmsley, 2007. World Prison Population List (7 th Edition).
Correctional System Reach is Deep Sources: Glaze & Maruschak, 2009. Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children, 2009. Bureau of Justice Statistics. O’Brien & Darrow, 2007. Adverse Employment Consequences Triggered by Criminal Convictions.
Total Number of Index I Offenses Sources: Glaze, 2009. Correctional Populations in the United States, 2009. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Langan & Levin, 2002. Recidivism of prisoners released in 1994. Federal Sentencing Reported, 15(1), 58. Uniform Crime Reports, 2010. U.S. Department of Justice. http://www.ucrdatatool.govhttp://www.ucrdatatool.gov Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional Surveys, 2009. The Annual Probation Survey, National Prisoners Statistics Program, Annual Survey of Jails, and Annual Parole Survey. http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/glance/corr2.cfmhttp://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/glance/corr2.cfm
Justice reinvestment is a data-driven approach to improve public safety, reduce corrections and related criminal justice spending, and reinvest savings in strategies that can decrease crime and strengthen neighborhoods. The purpose of justice reinvestment is to manage and allocate criminal justice populations more cost-effectively, generating savings that can be reinvested in evidence-based strategies that increase public safety while holding offenders accountable. ( https://www.bja.gov/ProgramDetails.aspx?Program_ID=92 )ttps://www.bja.gov/ProgramDetails.aspx?Program_ID=92
Evidenced Based Practices Leads to Better Positive Outcomes Education (Psycho-Social) Non-Directive Counseling Directive Counseling Motivational Interviewing Moral Reasoning Emotional Skills 12 Step with Curriculum Cognitive Processing Cognitive Behavioral (Social Skills, Behavioral Management, etc.) Therapeutic Communities Contingency Management/Token Economies Intensive Supervision Boot Camp Case Management Incarceration TASC DTAP (Diversion to TX, 12 Month Residential) Tx with Sanctions (e.g. Break the Cycle, Seamless System, etc.) Drug Courts RNR Supervision In-Prison Tx (TC) with Aftercare 10
Evidenced Based Practices Not Practiced Education (Psycho-Social) Non-Directive Counseling Directive Counseling Motivational Interviewing Moral Reasoning Emotional Skills 12 Step with Curriculum Cognitive Processing Cognitive Behavioral (Social Skills, Behavioral Management, etc.) Therapeutic Communities Contingency Management/Token Economies Intensive Supervision Boot Camps Case Management Incarceration TASC DTAP (Diversion to TX, 12 Month Residential) Tx with Sanctions (e.g. Break the Cycle, Seamless System, etc.) Drug Courts RNR Supervision In-Prison Tx (TC) with Aftercare 11
Children: More than 4 in 10 fathers were black, about 3 in 10 were white, and about 2 in 10 were Hispanic… 1:28 children have a parent in prison (Glaze & Maruschak, 2009). CHILDREN SPEND TIME IN PRISON Communities: Offenders tend to return in concentrated areas, creating instability to the areas, including increased STDs, pregnancy rates, and lack of male role models (Rose & Clear, 1998; Thomas & Torrone, 2006) Serving time reduces hourly wages for men by approximately 11 percent, annual employment by 9 weeks and annual earnings by 40 percent. By age 48, the typical former inmate will have earned $179,000 less than non CJS (Western & Petit, 2010) Source: JFA Institute and Justice Mapping Center, 2007. Probation and Prison Geography.
Justice Reinvestment A commitment to communities A commitment to issues of social inequities A commitment to crime prevention as compared to crime control Challenging public policy but doable with policy tools like RNR Simulation Tool www.gmuace.org/tools
Jurisdiction-level Impact of RNR 14 Jurisdiction A implements new treatment matching strategy and highly effective programming Currently: 35.4% new conviction rate within 3 years High fidelity CBT program with risk-appropriate dosage Bourgon & Armstrong, 2005; Caudy et al., 2013